Cattle Buffalo And Bison

Type of animal science Classification Fields of study Anatomy, conservation biology, ethology, physiology, reproduction science, wildlife ecology Cattle and buffalo are the major domesticated oxenlike animals in the world, while bison have never been domesticated, became nearly extinct, and have made a comeback in North America. dewlap loose fold of skin hanging from the throat of some cattle herbivore animal solely dependent on plant material for its nutrition interfertile animals able to...

Behavioral and Chemical Research

Both behavioral and chemical techniques are required in order to study pheromones and other semiochemicals. The observation of behavior, either in nature or in captivity, often suggests pheromonal functions. These hypothesized functions are then tested by presenting the pheromone to a potentially responsive organism and observing the response. Situations may be arranged which demand the subject's response to a particular pheromone under otherwise natural conditions. Alternatively, the organisms...

Measuring Metabolism

Rate of metabolism can be measured as the amount of heat produced by an organism in a time period. The traditional unit of heat is the calorie a kilo-calorie is one thousand calories. The two terms are frequently confused in popular literature. In the international system of units, heat is measured in joules, and 1 calorie is equal to 4.184 joules. Metabolic rate can be determined from the energy budget of an animal. If the total energy excreted in urine and feces is subtracted from the total...

Emergency Veterinary Medicine

Veterinarians dress wounds, inject snake antitoxin and antibiotics, splint broken limbs, and euthanize animals as needed after accidents. Educating clients about possible dangers, veterinarians provide safety information for preemergency preparations for pets and livestock. Veterinarians distribute guides advising how animal owners should respond when faced with natural disasters such as fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, blizzards, and tornados. Other emergencies that can victimize...

Early Zoos and Aquariums

The establishment of the Zoological Society of London's zoological garden at Regent's Park in 1828 was a significant event in the history of animal collecting and may be considered a transition in the evolution of zoos. This collection was intended from its inception to surpass any then in existence, with an emphasis on education and research. Private European menageries evolved into public zoological gardens, going from collections for the few (royalty and wealthy collectors) to zoological...

General Nutritional Requirements

Animals differ widely in their specific nutritional needs, depending on the species. Within any given species, those needs may vary according to variations in body size and composition, age, sex, activity, genetic makeup, and reproductive functions. A small animal requires more food for energy per gram of body weight than does a larger animal, because the metabolic rate per unit of body weight is higher in the smaller animal. Likewise, an animal with a cool body temperature will have less...

Maternal Care Versus Paternal Care

In mammals, if only one parent is necessary, it is always the mother who is committed to care-taking because she is the one who must provide the offspring with their first food through nursing. No other animals, however, nurse their young, so in other species, if only one parent is necessary, it does not necessarily have to be the mother who becomes the caretaker. In single-parent species, whether it is the mother or father who becomes the caretaking parent depends, to a great extent, on...

Physical Characteristics of Polar Bears

Male polar bears are up to five feet high at the shoulder while on all fours and up to ten feet long. When standing on its hind legs, a male can be eleven feet tall. Adult males are generally much bigger than females 1,100 to 1,770 pounds for males, 330 to 770 pounds for females. Like other bears, polar bears are plantigrade. Mating takes place in late March to late May. This is the only time that the male is with the female. Other than family groups of females with their cubs, polar bears are...

Studying Kidney Function

The kidney can be studied on many different levels. The output of the kidney, the urine, and the input, the blood, can be analyzed in order to determine function of both kidneys. In some animals, such as the frog, the individual nephrons are visible under a microscope. Through the use of the stop-flow technique, the behavior of an individual portion of the nephron can be studied. In this technique, a very small needle is introduced into one portion of the nephron, and a small drop of oil is...

The Metabolic Furnace and Body Temperature

Warm-blooded animals (endotherms) are characterized by using metabolism to keep their body temperature relatively constant and independent of the environmental temperature. The overall metabolic process is about 25 percent efficient, which means 25 percent of the food energy accomplishes work and the other 75 percent is lost as heat. The internal organs such as the heart, kidneys, brain, and lungs generate the majority of the heat, which is then distributed throughout the body by the...

Functions of Essential Minerals and Vitamins

Calcium nerve and muscle function, blood clotting, bone and tooth formation Chlorine acid-base balance, gastric juice Chromium associated with glucose and energy metabolism Cobalt component of Vitamin B12 Fluorine maintenance of tooth structure Iodine component of thyroxine, a thyroid hormone Iron component of essential enzymes and electron carriers in energy metabolism Phosphorus transfer of chemical energy, bone and tooth formation, nucleic acid synthesis Potassium proper nerve function,...

Insect Facts

Kingdom Anamalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Uniramia Class Insecta Orders Common orders include Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (flies, mosquitoes) Hemiptera (true bugs) Homoptera (cicadas), Hymen-optera (ants, bees, wasps) Isoptera (termites) Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies) Orthoptera (crickets, grasshoppers) Geographical location Every continent except Antarctica Habitat Mainly terrestrial, some aquatic, primarily freshwater Gestational...

Chemical Aphrodisiacs

For thousands of years, people have used perfumes, lotions, and oils in an effort to enhance their sexual appeal. Several companies have even started to market chemicals thought to be human phero-mones. Despite the huge appeal of such supposed aphrodisiacs, there is no evidence that any truly work. In other species, however, there exist naturally occurring chemicals that not only signal reproductive readiness, but also affect other individuals' reproductive capacity. In many species, a female...

Digestive System

The digestive system is composed of the alimentary canal, along with glands such as the liver, salivary glands, and pancreas that produce substances needed in digestion. Digestion starts with the ingestion and chewing of food mixed with saliva. The food passes down the esophagus into the stomach, where the gastric and intestinal juices continue the process. Thereafter, the mixture of food and secretions, called chyme, is pushed down the alimentary canal by peristalsis, rhythmic contractions of...

Evolutionary Development of the Vertebrate Brain

The location of most animals' brain or brainlike organ at the anterior or superior end of the body is important, since it places the brain at the leading end of the moving animal or at its highest point. Many sensory receptors are located in the head, and information from the eyes, ears, and nose can be rapidly received and processed if the processing center is in the same region. In vertebrates, the nervous system is much more advanced than the primitive systems of invertebrates. The...

Centipedes And Millipedes

Types of animal science Anatomy, classification, reproduction Fields of study Anatomy, invertebrate biology, zoology Over twelve thousand species of the arthropods centipedes and millipedes are known. Centipedes are carnivorous, and millipedes are usually vegetarians. diplosomite millipede trunk segment, formed by the fusion of two body segments mandibles jaws of insects and other arthropods nocturnal active at night palp oral sensory organs of arthropods Centipedes and millipedes are somewhat...

Parrots

How Parakeets Lay Eggs Diagram

Parrot species include macaws, cockatoos, true parrots, parakeets, and lories. They are kept as pets for their beautiful coloring and ability to learn to talk. plumage the feathers of birds zygodactyl having two toes pointing backward and two toes pointing forward The hundreds of parrot species are vivid-colored members of the bird family Psitta-cidae. They belong to five classes macaws, cockatoos, true parrots, parakeets, and lories. In parrot plumage, reds and greens often predominate, but...

Pairbonding

How Chimpanzees Mate

Pair-bonding is the formation of attachments or relationships of various durations for purposes of reproduction and care of the young, relationships that may appear analogous to marriage and family in humans. bond, bonding the tie or relationship between opposite-sex partners in a pair bond bonding behaviors behavior patterns that establish, maintain, or strengthen the pair bond consort pair, consortsmp a temporarily bonded pair within a polygamous group long-term pair bond pair bonding that...

The Midbrain and the Forebrain

The midbrain is the second major region of the brain. The midbrain's dorsal aspect, called the tectum, is a target for some of the auditory and visual information that an animal receives. The paired inferior colliculi form the lower half of the tectum. They help to coordinate auditory reflexes to relay acoustic signals to the cerebrum. The two superior colliculi, the other half of the tectum, assist the localization in space of visual stimuli by causing appropriate eye and trunk movements. In...

Octopus The Master Deceiver

Some animals such as chameleons and anoles, which are mistakenly called chameleons are famous for changing their color to match the background. Anoles can change from whitish to gray, brown, or green to match the sand, branches, or foliage where they rest. Some fish can go one better, creating complex disruptive color patterns to match different kinds of blotchy sand, rock, or coral backgrounds. The master of deception, however, is the octopus. No vertebrate can match the octopus in terms of...

Life Cycle of Chameleons

Exceptions include pygmy stump-tailed chameleons, which are small, ground-living, and lack prehensile tails. Male chameleons are territorial. In many cases, male invaders of a territory are fought actively and the battle ends in the death of one male. In some cases, the combat is ritual, though the male who is faced down leaves. Males and females are solitary, coming together only to mate. Most color changes indicate breeding intentions, pregnancy, or, on the part...

Centipede Facts

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Uniramia Class Chilopoda Centipedes Families Geophilidae soil centipedes , Litho-biidae stone centipedes , Scolopendridae tropical centipedes , Scutigeridae house centipedes Geographical location Worldwide, in temperate, warm, or tropical regions Habitat Under stones, logs, leaves, other ground litter in human habitations Gestational period Eggs hatch in two to four weeks Life span Six to ten years Special anatomy Sensory...

The Gharial

The Indian crocodile, the gharial, is perhaps the most unusual living crocodile. It has an extreme longirostrine condition, where the elongated jaws are markedly set off from the skull. Below its skin, the gharial is different from all other crocodiles in the back and hindlimb muscles and the skull construction. It is worth noting that crocodiles as well as most other archosaurian reptiles have a verticalized floor of the braincase. Thus, in most crocodilians, the floor of the braincase is high...

Tails

Types of animal science Anatomy, evolution, physiology Fields of study Anatomy, conservation biology, developmental biology, entomology, evolutionary science, herpetology, invertebrate biology The tail is a prolongation of the animal body that serves the animal as a means of defense, locomotion, stabilization, or ornament. arboreal living in trees burrowing insectivore an insect-eating animal that usually lives in nests formed by digging holes or tunnels in the ground invertebrate animals...

Prion and Fungal Diseases

A very unusual kind of infectious pathogen is an abnormal protein called a prion, not associated with either DNAor RNA. Neurodegenerative diseases such as scrapie in sheep and bovine spon-giform encephalopathy BSE, or mad cow disease , as well as kuru and Creutzfeld-Jacob disease in humans, are prion diseases. The abnormal protein is a refolded form of a normal brain protein, and prions cause the normal proteins to fold into the prion form in brains of infected individuals. Prions are very...

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

Born August 1, 1744 Bazentin-le-Petit, Picardy, France Died December 18, 1829 Paris, France Fields of study Evolutionary science, invertebrate biology, paleontology, zoology Contribution Lamarck established the division of animal life into the vertebrate and invertebrate categories, and he formulated an evolutionary theory based on the premise that acquired traits are inheritable. After studying briefly for the priesthood at the Jesuit seminary in Amiens, Jean-Baptiste de Monet, chevalier de...

Seals And Walruses

Type of animal science Classification Fields of study Anatomy, ethology, genetics, marine biology, physiology Essentially aquatic, warm-blooded mammals, seals and though most of them gravitate to the colder areas. against evil carnivores meat-eating animals circumpolar regions the regions around the North and South Poles mollusks a phylum of aquatic invertebrates, usually shelled, such as clams, mussels, and squid muzzle the area around the nose and mouth of an animal pinnipeds web-footed...

The Life Cycle of Marsupials

Marsupials, as mammals, have milk-producing glands and suckle their young. They reproduce similarly to nearly all other mammals One or more eggs, produced internally by the female, are fertilized internally by the male and develop within the female's body. After a period of developmental stages lasting weeks or months, the fertilized egg becomes an embryo, then a fetus, and finally is ready to be born. Marsupials differ because after only a short development period, the young fetus leaves the...

The Hibernation Inducement Trigger

Scientists studying hibernation note that the hibernation inducement trigger HIT springs into action in three specific circumstances, occurring singly or in combination when the days grow shorter in autumn, restricting the amount of light to which organisms are subjected when temperatures drop, which often happens when the days grow shorter and when food becomes scarce. Questions about how HIT works have increased rather than decreased in recent years. Blood extracted from squirrels during...

Interrelationships Among Organisms

Through the years, two concepts of niche have evolved in ecology. The first is the place niche, the physical space in which an organism lives. The second is the ecological niche, and it encompasses the particular location occupied by an organism and its functional role in the community. The functional role of a species is not limited to its placement along a food pyramid it also includes the interactions of a species with other organisms while obtaining food. For example, the methods used to...

Skunk Facts

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Mustelidae Subfamily Mephitinae Genus and species Three genera and thirteen species, including Mephitis mephitis striped skunk Spilogale angustifrons southern spotted skunk , S. gracilis western spotted skunk , S. putorius eastern spotted skunk , S. pygmaea pygmy spotted skunk Geographical location The United States, Mexico, southern Canada, and Central America Habitat Rocky crevices...

Endocrine Control of Pregnancy Parturition and Lactation

During an ovarian cycle, a pregnancy can occur if the ovum becomes fertilized. The events that occur during pregnancy are also controlled by hormones. In mammals, fertilization normally occurs in the oviduct. When the fertilized embryo is implanted in the uterus, it is nourished as a result of the glandular and vascular buildup of the uterine wall. This buildup is maintained by estrogen and progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum. As the embryo grows, it begins to produce a portion of the...

Tasmanian Devils

1941 Picture Tasmanian Devil

The Tasmanian devil is the world's largest carnivorous marsupial. It is now found only on the island of Tasmania, where it is reasonably common throughout the island and is strictly protected. Its noisy and screechy sounds make it seem much more ferocious than its size might indicate. adaptive radiation the process by which many species evolve from a single ancestral species in adapting to new habitats dingo the wild dog brought to Australia by the aborigines marsupial primitive mammals in...

Migration and Eating Habits

All antelope are herbivores vegetarians . They usually travel slowly within the security of their herds. Because of their numbers, they can anticipate danger as they travel and avoid it when it is imminent. As they move through their habitats, some species, such as the wildebeest also called the gnu , graze on the grass of the savannas in which they usually live. Species whose habitat is in forests tend to eat the leaves and slender branches of trees, often standing on their hind legs to reach...

Ichthyosaur Facts

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Craniata Class Reptilia Subclass Lepidosauria Order Ichthyopterygia Family Ophthalmosauria Genus and species Ophthalmosaurus icenicus Geographical location Oceans of the Mesozoic Era Habitat Marine Gestational period Unknown Life span Unknown Special anatomy Limbs transformed to flippers wings that employ hyperphalangy to elongate flipper reevolve dorsal fin and tail fluke in some smooth skin without scales rostrum elongate with conical labyrinthodont...

Dog Wolf and Coyote Facts

Wolves Natural Habitat

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Metazoa Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora Suborder Canoidea Family Canidae Genus and species Ten genera and thirty-five species, including Canis familiaris domestic dog , C. lupus gray wolf , C. rufus red wolf , C. latrans coyote Geographical location Dogs live on every continent except Antarctica wolves are not found in Africa, South America, and Australia coyotes live only in North and Central America Habitat...

Chameleon Facts

Family Chamaeleontidae chameleons Genera Chamaleo twenty-four species , Brookesia four subgenera, eight species Geographical location Madagascar, Africa, Asia, and Europe Habitat Land-dwellers mostly arboreal, though some live on the ground Gestational period Females lay ten to sixty fertilized eggs, which hatch on their own Life span Five to ten years Special anatomy Eyes that rotate 360 degrees, zygodactyl feet, prehensile tails, spearlike horns for mating and combat, long sticky tongues...

Porcupine Life Cycle

Adult porcupines are solitary mammals for most of the year, except during the breeding season, between September and November. Female porcupines begin reproductive activities at about 1.5 years of age. It is common to find several males around a female during her brief eight- to twelve-hour time of receptivity. Mating is brief and occurs on the ground, with the female raising her tail over her back. After the male has inseminated her, each porcupine goes its separate way. Usually only one...

Owls

Pygmy Owl Catching Prey

Any of the Strigiformes, a group of birds with highly specialized characteristics for nocturnal activity, including soft feathers and enhanced hearing and eyesight. asymmetrical ears in some species of owls, the ears are of unequal size and located unequally on the sides of the head asynchronous an uneven event in hawks and owls, the staggered hatching of eggs that results in a nest of different-aged young facial disk the distinctive concentric circles of feathers that encircle the eyes of...

Seahorses

Seahorse Species

At least thirty-five species of seahorses, classified in the genus of Hippocampus, live in shallow subtropical coastal areas around the world. They swim in an upright position and have a head suggestive of a horse, a prickly looking body, and a prehensile tail. The male incubates eggs in a pouch in its abdomen and gives birth to live young. dorsal fin fin on the back of a fish ovipositor a tube that extends from the female's body for depositing eggs pectoral fin one of a pair of fins just...

Modeling Animal Populations

The dynamics of animal populations is affected by a wide variety of demographic factors, including the population birth rate, death rate, sex ratio, age structure, and rates of immigration and emigration. In order to understand the effects of these factors on a population, biologists use population models. A model is an abstract representation of a concrete idea. The representation created by the model boils the concrete idea into a few critical components. By building and examining population...

Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

One of the most important factors that affects metabolic rate is the temperature of the organism, since within limits all chemical reactions of metabolism proceed faster at higher temperatures. The internal temperature of most invertebrate an imals, fish, and amphibians is the same as the temperature of the environment in which they live. Such organisms are called poikilotherms. In poikilothermic organisms, metabolic rate increases as the environmental temperature increases. Such organisms move...

Chickens Turkeys Pheasant And Quail

Type of animal science Classification Fields of study Anatomy, zoology The chicken, turkey, pheasant, and quail are related members of the family Phasianidae. Chickens are probably the most numerous bird in the world. chicks baby birds from chickens, turkeys, pheasant, or quail clutch a group of eggs in a nest cock male chicken, pheasant, or quail cockerel young male chicken, pheasant, egg a round, hard-shelled object produced by the female bird that may produce offspring, but is often used as...

Chameleons

Types of animal science Anatomy, classification, reproduction Fields of study Anatomy, zoology Chameleons, the family Chamaeleontidae, have long, sticky tongues to capture prey. Other unique characteristics include eyes that operate independently of each other, leaflike body shapes, ability to change skin color, zygodactyly, and prehensile tails. arboreal dwelling in trees chromatophore a color-causing cell cold-blooded animals whose body temperatures equal the temperature of their surroundings...

The Life Cycle of Hyenas

Hyena Life Cycle

There are similarities and differences in hyena species lives. Spotted hyenas form groups of up to The spotted hyena's maniacal, eerie cry has led to it being called the laughing hyena. Digital Stock one hundred a few males, many females, and numerous young. Females conceive year round, birthing two or three pups that can see and run immediately, after a four-month gestation. Females, larger than males, select short-term mates. Striped hyenas fight within groups, sometimes killing group...

Termites

Termites are cellulose-eating social insects that live in colonies of hundreds to millions of individual members produced by a single king and queen. Termites are highly beneficial to the ecosystem because they break down dead plant material, but some species can become serious pests when they colonize manmade wooden structures. alates recently molted winged adult termites carton cardboardlike material composed of wood fragments, saliva, and fecal matter, used for constructing termite nests...