Multiple Sclerosis As A Disease Of Miscommunication Between The Central Nervous System And Immune System

Commodity Trading Operational

In the time frame immediately following Medwar's seminal experiments defining immune privilege, CNS function was thought to be dependent on successful isolation of the CNS from the immune system. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies confirmed the neurotoxic potential of the products produced by activated immune cells including nitric oxide, prostaglandins, cytokines . Furthermore, therapeutic interventions such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids aimed at suppressing the...

Can The Healthy Cns Support Antigenspecific Tcell Responses

Macrophages Central Nervous System

The previous discussion demonstrates that chemokine induction, homeostatic signals, and or peripheral immune responses are sufficient to initiate destructive autoimmunity against peripheral tissues however, these same signals are by themselves insufficient to initiate CNS autoimmunity. Consequently, it has been proposed that the CNS lacks an effective resident APC population capable of effectively recruiting, retaining, or activating T-cell responses. From this viewpoint, initiation of CNS...

Leukocyte Migration And Matrix Remodeling

Leukocyte Migration Adhesion

Leukocyte migration through basal lamina and extracellular matrix toward sites of inflammation may be related to the elevation in proteases, e.g., matrix metalloproteases MMPs . During exacerbations of MS, elevated levels of MMP-9 and other MMPs have been reported in the CSF MMP-9 and in MS plaques, respectively 63 . Similarly, it is has been shown that one of the therapeutic mechanisms of IFN-P in MS consists of lowering the MMP-9 tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 TIMP-1 ratio, which in turn may limit...