An encephalocele is a herniation of a part of the in-tracranial contents through a defect in the skull. En-cephaloceles may present as obvious malformations or they may be occult and only come to light following a complication. Basal encephaloceles can be classified on the basis of their location into: transethmoidal (Fig. 15.24a, b), sphenoethmoidal, transsphenoidal, frontosphenoidal, or rarely basioccipital-nasopharyn-geal. Encephaloceles may be congenital in origin and represent a primary anomaly of the neural tube and its skeletal cover. Acquired encephaloceles may be posttraumatic (Fig. 15.25 a, b) or follow neurosurgery or sinonasal surgery.
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