Roots Pertaining to the Urinary System
Clinical Aspects of the Urinary System
After study of this chapter you should be able to:
1. Label a diagram of the urinary tract and follow the flow of urine through the body.
2. Label a diagram of the kidney.
3. Identify the portions of the nephron and explain how each functions in urine formation.
4. Explain the relationship between the kidney and the blood circulation.
5. Identify and use the roots pertaining to the urinary system.
6. Describe the major disorders of the urinary system.
7. Define medical terms commonly used in reference to the urinary system.
8. Interpret abbreviations used in reference to the urinary system.
9. Analyze several case studies pertaining to urinary disorders.
The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and a urethra (Fig. 13-1). This system forms and eliminates urine, which contains metabolic waste products. The kidneys, the organs of excretion, also regulate the composition, volume, and acid-base balance (pH) of body fluids. Thus they are of critical importance in maintaining the state of internal balance known as homeostasis. In addition, they produce two substances that act on the circulatory system. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Renin is an enzyme that functions to raise blood pressure. It does so by activating a blood component called angiotensin, which causes constriction of the blood vessels. The drugs known as ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) lower blood pressure by interfering with the production of angiotensin.
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