The Urinary System

Chapter Contents

The Kidneys The Nephrons Blood Supply to the Kidney Urine Formation Removal of Urine

Roots Pertaining to the Urinary System

Clinical Aspects of the Urinary System

Labeling Exercises

Chapter Review

Case Studies

Crossword Puzzle

Answer Section

Objectives

After study of this chapter you should be able to:

1. Label a diagram of the urinary tract and follow the flow of urine through the body.

2. Label a diagram of the kidney.

3. Identify the portions of the nephron and explain how each functions in urine formation.

4. Explain the relationship between the kidney and the blood circulation.

5. Identify and use the roots pertaining to the urinary system.

6. Describe the major disorders of the urinary system.

7. Define medical terms commonly used in reference to the urinary system.

8. Interpret abbreviations used in reference to the urinary system.

9. Analyze several case studies pertaining to urinary disorders.

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and a urethra (Fig. 13-1). This system forms and eliminates urine, which contains metabolic waste products. The kidneys, the organs of excretion, also regulate the composition, volume, and acid-base balance (pH) of body fluids. Thus they are of critical importance in maintaining the state of internal balance known as homeostasis. In addition, they produce two substances that act on the circulatory system. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Renin is an enzyme that functions to raise blood pressure. It does so by activating a blood component called angiotensin, which causes constriction of the blood vessels. The drugs known as ACE inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) lower blood pressure by interfering with the production of angiotensin.

The Human Body Health And Disease
FIGURE 13-1. Male urinary system, with blood vessels. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

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Responses

  • ilmari julin
    What is the medical term for the study of the urinary system?
    8 years ago
  • pearl
    Where does angiotensin 1 begin?
    8 years ago
  • guadalupe royal
    How to explain the bladder with medical terms?
    8 years ago
  • afwerki
    What causes wilkins disease?
    8 years ago
  • Lavinia Oldbuck
    How many blood vessels in human body?
    7 years ago
  • tim
    HOW DOES THE BLOOD FLOW IN THE BODY?
    7 years ago
  • marina
    What is the medical terminology for analysis of urine:?
    7 years ago
  • helvi
    What is urine system in our body with figure?
    4 years ago

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