The Lymphatic System

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The lymphatic system is a widely distributed system with multiple functions (Fig. 9-7). Its role in circulation is to return excess fluid and proteins from the tissues to the bloodstream. The fluid carried in the lymphatic system is called lymph. Lymph drains from the lower part of the body and the upper left side into the

Box 9-1 Name That Structure

An eponym is a name that is based on the name of a person, usually the one who discovered a particular structure, disease, principle, or procedure. Everyday examples are graham cracker, Ferris wheel, and boycott. In the heart, the bundle of His and Purkinje fibers are part of that organ's conduction system. Korotkoff sounds are heard in the vessels when taking blood pressure. Cardiovascular disorders named for people include the tetralogy of Fallot, a combination of four congenital heart defects, Raynaud disease of small vessels, and the cardiac arrhythmia known as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. In treatment, Doppler echocardiography is named for a physicist of the 19th century. The Holter monitor and the Swan-Ganz catheter give honor to their developers.

In other systems, the islets of Langerhans are clusters of cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin. The graafian follicle in the ovary surrounds the developing egg cell. The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the throat.

Many diseases have eponymic names: Parkinson and Alzheimer, which affect the brain,

Graves, a disorder of the thyroid, Addison and Cushing, involving the adrenal cortex, and Down syndrome, a hereditary disorder. The genus and species names of microorganisms often are based on the names of their discoverers, Escherichia, Salmonella, Pasteurella, and Rickettsia to name a few.

Many reagents, instruments, and procedures are named for their developers. The original name for a radiograph was roentgenograph (RENT-jen-o-graf), named for Wilhelm Röntgen, discoverer of x-rays. A curie is a measure of radiation, derived from the name of Marie Curie, a co-discoverer of radioactivity.

Although eponyms give honor to physicians and scientists of the past, they do not convey any information and may be more difficult to learn. There is a trend to replace these names with more descriptive ones; for example, auditory tube instead of eustachian tube, ovarian follicle for graafian follicle, pancreatic islets for islets of Langerhans, and trisomy 21 for Down syndrome.

FIGURE 9-4. Blood pressure cuffs in three sizes. Shown are the cuff, the bulb for inflating the cuff, and the manometer for measuring pressure. (Reprinted with permission from Taylor C, Lillis C, LeMone P. Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001. Photograph courtesy of Ken Kasper.)

Brachio-cephalic

Subclavian

Axillary

Brachial -

Volar arch _

Volar: metacarpals

Digitals'

Dorsalis pedis^ Dorsal metatarsals-

Subclavian

Axillary

Digitals'

Art Dorsalis Pedis

FIGURE 9-5. Principal systemic arteries. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Common carotid

Aortic arch Intercostals

Celiac Renal

Testicular

Inferior mesenteric

- Common iliac

Internal iliac

External iliac

Popliteal Genicular

FIGURE 9-5. Principal systemic arteries. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

thoracic duct, which travels upward through the chest and empties into the left subclavian vein near the heart. The right lymphatic duct drains the upper right side of the body and empties into the right subcla-vian vein.

Another function of the lymphatic system is to absorb digested fats from the small intestine (see Chapter 12). These fats are then added to the blood near the heart.

One other major function of the lymphatic system is to protect the body from impurities and invading microorganisms. Along the path of the lymphatic vessels are small masses of lymphoid tissue, the lymph nodes (see Fig. 9-7). Their function is to filter the lymph as it passes through. They are concentrated

Path Lymph Through Body
FIGURE 9-6. Principal systemic veins. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

in the cervical (neck), axillary (armpit), mediastinal (chest), and inguinal (groin) regions. The lymph nodes and the remainder of the lymphatic system also play a role in immunity (see Chapter 10). Other organs and tissues of the lymphatic system include the tonsils, located in the throat (described in Chapter 11), the thymus gland in the chest, and the spleen in the upper left region of the abdomen (see Fig. 12-1).

Right lymphatic duct -Right subclavian vein ■

Axillary nodes-

Mammary vessels

Left subclavian vein

■Thoracic duct

Mesenteric nodes

Cubital nodes

Cisterna chyli

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Responses

  • Habte
    Where are the lymph nodes located in the human body?
    8 years ago
  • Hagos
    Where is the cephalic located on human body?
    8 years ago
  • Monica
    Where are lymphnodes near the iliac located?
    7 years ago
  • ARRIGO
    Where are lymph nodes in the body infection?
    7 years ago
  • CHARLES
    What is any disorder of lymph nodes or lymph vessels called mediical terminology?
    7 years ago

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