Symptoms And Conditions

acne

An inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles

AK-ne

usually associated with excess secretion of sebum; acne vulgaris

actinic

Pertaining to the effects of radiant energy, such as sunlight, ultra-

ak-TIN-ik

violet light, and x-rays

albinism

A hereditary lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes

AL-bin-izm

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

alopecia

Absence or loss of hair; baldness

al-o-PE-she-a

Beau lines

White lines across the fingernails; usually a sign of systemic disease

bo

or injury (Fig. 21-8)

bromhidrosis

Sweat that has a foul odor because of bacterial decomposition; also

bro-mi-DRO-sis

called bromidrosis

carbuncle

A localized infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, usually

CAR-bung-kl

caused by staphylococcus, and associated with pain and discharge

of pus

cicatrix

A scar; scar formation is called cicatrization

SIK-a-triks

comedo_

A plug of sebum, often containing bacteria, in a hair follicle; a black-

KOM-e-do

head (plural, comedones)

dermatophytosis

Fungal infection of the skin, especially between the toes; athlete's

der-ma-to-fi -TO-sis

foot (root phyt/o means "plant")

diaphoresis

Profuse sweating

di -a-fo -RE-sis

dyskeratosis

Any abnormality in keratin formation in epithelial cells

dis-ker-a-TO-sis

ecchymi osis

A collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small

ek-i-MO-sis

vessels

erysipelas

An acute infectious disease of the skin with localized redness and

er-i-SIP-e-las

swelling and systemic symptoms

erythemi a

Diffuse redness of the skin

er-i-THE-ma

eri ythiema nodosum

Inflammation of subcutaneous tissues resulting in tender, erythema-

no-DO-sum

tous nodules; may be an abnormal immune response to a systemic

disease, an infection, or a drug

exanthem

Any eruption of the skin that accompanies a disease, such as measles;

eks-AN-them

a rash

excoriiatiioin

Lesion caused by scratching or abrasion (Fig. 21-9)

eks-ko-re-A-shun

folliculitii

Inflammation of a hair follicle

fo-lik-U-LI-tis

furuncle

A painful skin nodule caused by staphylococci that enter through a

FU-rung-kl

hair follicle; a boil

hemangioma

A benign tumor of blood vessels; in the skin, called birthmarks or

he-man-j e-O-ma

port wine stains

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

herpes_ simplex

A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus. Type I

HER-pez SIM-pleks

herpes simplex virus produces fluid-filled vesicles, usually on the lips, after fever, exposure to the sun, injury, or stress; cold sore, fever blister. Type II infections usually involve the genital organs.

hirsut_ism

Excessive growth of hair

HIR-su-tizm

ichth_yosis

A dry, scaly condition of the skin (from the root ichthy/o, meaning

ik-the-o -sis

"fish")

impetig_o_

A bacterial skin infection with pustules that rupture and form crusts;

im-pe-TI-go

most commonly seen in children, usually on the face

ke_loid

A raised, thickened scar caused by overgrowth of tissue during scar

KE-loyd

formation

keratosi_s

Any skin condition marked by thickened or horny growth. Sebor-

ker-a-TO-sis

rheic keratosis is a benign tumor, yellow or light brown in color, that appears in the elderly. Actinic keratosis is caused by exposure to sunlight and may lead to squamous cell carcinoma.

lichenification

Thickened marks caused by chronic rubbing, as seen in atopic der-

li -ken-i-fi-KA-shun

matitis (a lichen is a flat, branching type of plant that grows on rocks and bark; see Fig. 21-9)

mycosis fungoides

A rare malignant disease that originates in the skin and involves the

mi -KO-sisfun-GOY-dez

internal organs and lymph nodes. There are large, painful, ulcerating tumors.

ne_vus

A defined discoloration of the skin; a congenital vascular tumor of

NE-vus

the skin; a mole, birthmark

paronychia

Infection around a nail

par-o-NIK-e-a

pediculosis

Infestation with lice

pe-dik-u-LO-sis

pletecl hilael

Flat, pinpoint, purplish-red spots caused by bleeding within the skin

pe-TE-ke-e

or mucous membrane (singular, petechia)

pruritus

Severe itching

pru-RI-tus

purpurla

A condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin and other

PUR-pu-ra

tissues

rlosacl ea l

A condition of unknown cause involving redness of the skin, pus-

ro-ZA-she-a

tules, and overactivity of sebaceous glands, mainly on the face

scabies

SKA-blez

A highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

senile lentigines

Brown macules that appear on sun-exposed skin in adults; liver spots

len-TIJ-i-nez

shingles

An acute eruption of vesicles along the path of a nerve; herpes zoster

(HER-pez ZOS-ter); caused by the same virus that causes chicken pox

tinea

A fungal infection of the skin; ringworm

TIN-t-a

tinea versicolor

Superficial chronic fungal infection that causes varied pigmentation

VER-si-kol-or

of the skin

urticaria

A skin reaction marked by temporary, smooth, raised areas (wheals)

ur-ti-KA-re-a

associated with itching; hives

venous stasis ulcer

Ulcer caused by venous insufficiency and stasis of venous blood; usu-

ally forms near the ankle

verruc a

An epidermal tumor; a wart

ver-RU-ka

vitilig_o

Patchy disappearance of pigment in the skin; leukoderma (Fig. 21-10)

vit-i-LI-go

xero derma pigmentosum

A fatal hereditary disease that begins in childhood with discol-

ze-ro-DER-ma

orations and ulcers of the skin and muscle atrophy. There is in-

pig-men-TO-sum

creased sensitivity to the sun and increased susceptibility to cancer.

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

aloe

A plant (Aloe vera), the leaves of which contain a gel that is used in

A-lo

treatment of burns and minor skin irritations

antipruritic

Agent that prevents or relieves itching

an-ti-pru-RIT-ik

cautery

Destruction of tissue by physical or chemical means; cauterization;

KAW-ter-_

also the instrument or chemical used for this purpose

dermabrasi on

A plastic surgical procedure for removing scars or birthmarks by

DERM-a-bra-zhun

chemical or mechanical destruction of epidermal tissue

dermatop lasty

Transplantation of human skin; skin grafting

DER-ma-to-plas-te

d_iascop y

Examination of skin lesions by pressing a glass plate against the skin

di -AS-ko-pe

fulguration

Destruction of tissue by high-frequency electric sparks

ful-gu-RA-shun

skin turgor

Resistance of the skin to deformation. Evidenced by the ability of the

TUR-gor

skin to return to position when pinched. Skin turgor is a measure of

the skin's elasticity and state of hydration. It typically declines with

age and may also be a sign of poor nutrition.

Wood lamp

An ultraviolet light used to diagnose fungal infections

FIGURE 21-8. Beau lines, transverse depressions in the nails associated with acute severe illness. (Reprinted with permission from Bickley LS. Bate's Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. 8th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.)

Mucosal Dle Lesions

FIGURE 21-9. (A) Excoriation and (B) lichenification seen on the leg. (Reprinted with permission from Bickley LS. Bate's Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. 8th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.)

Lichenification Legs

FIGURE 21-10. Vitiligo. Depigmented macules appear on the skin and may merge into large areas that lack melanin. The brown pigment seen in the illustration is the person's normal skin color; the pale areas are caused by vitiligo. (Reprinted with permission from Bickley LS. Bate's Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. 8th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.)

ABBREVIATIONS

BSA

Body surface area

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

DLE

Discoid lupus erythematosus

SPF

Sun protection factor

FTSG

Full-thickness skin graft

STSG

Split-thickness skin graft

LE

Lupus erythematosus

UV

Ultraviolet

PSS

Progressive systemic sclerosis

VAC

Vacuum-assisted closure

PUVA

Psoralen UV-A

SCLE

Subacute cutaneous lupus

erythematosus

Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

Labeling Exercise 21-1

Cross-Section of the Skin

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet.

Fibrous Connective Tissue Artery

Adipose (fat) cells Artery Dermis Epidermis

Fibrous connective tissue Hair follicle Muscle (arrector pili) Nerve

Nerve endings Pore

Pressure receptor Sebaceous gland Stratum basale Stratum corneum Subcutaneous layer Sudoriferous (sweat) gland Vein

Multiple choice: Select the best answer and write the letter of your choice to the left of each number.

1. cutaneous

2. follicle

3. stratum basale

4. stratum corneum

5. sebum a. oily secretion of the skin b. growing layer of the epidermis c. sheath that contains a hair d. referring to the skin e. uppermost, thickened layer of the epidermis

6. macule

7. vesicle

8. nodule

9. fissure 10. wheal a. crack or break in the skin b. solid, raised lesion c. flat, colored spot d. blister e. smooth, raised area with itching

11. debridement a.

12. pressure ulcer b.

13. psoriasis c.

14. lupus erythematosus d.

15. Kaposi sarcoma e.

SUPPLEMENTARY TERMS

_ 17. diaphoresis b.

21. urticaria a.

22. furuncle b.

24. purpura d.

25. herpes simplex e.

autoimmune disorder that involves the skin removal of dead tissue from a wound chronic dermatitis with silvery scales cancerous skin lesion seen in debilitated people bedsore severe itching redness of the skin baldness profuse sweating thickened scar hemorrhages into the skin hives viral infection of the skin mole or birthmark painful infectious nodule; boil

_ 26. bromhidrosis

_ 29. cicatrix

_ 31. fulguration

_ 32. petechiae

_ 33. impetigo

_ 34. paronychia

Fill in the blanks:

36. The skin and its associated structures make up the _ system.

37. A sudoriferous gland produces _.

38. The layer of the skin under the epidermis is the _.

39. The main pigment in skin is _.

40. The oil-producing glands of the skin are the _.

41. The protein that thickens the skin and makes up hair and nails is _

Define each of the following words:

47. hypertrichosis (hi-per-tri-KO-sis) _

Word building. Write a word for each of the following definitions:

49. any disease of the skin _

50. insufficient production of melanin _

51. hardening of the skin _

52. tumor containing melanin _

53. discharge of sebum _

54. instrument for cutting the skin _

a. scar b. fungal infection c. blackhead d. referring to radiation e. sweat with a foul odor a. condition causing redness and pustules, mainly on the face b. pinpoint red spots caused by bleeding into the skin c. bacterial skin infection d. destruction of tissue by electric spark e. infection around a nail

55. loosening or separation (-lysis) of a nail _

Use the word hidrosis (sweating) or the ending -idrosis as an ending to make a word with each of the following meanings:

58. excess sweating _

59. excretion of colored (chrom/o) sweat _

Word analysis. Define each of the following words, and give the meaning of the word parts in each. Use a dictionary if necessary.

60. onychocryptosis (on-i-ko-krip-TO-sis) _

61. achromotrichia (a-kro-mo-TRIK-e-a) _

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