Supplementary Terms

The Big Heart Disease Lie

The Best Ways to Treat Cardiovascular Disease

Get Instant Access

NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

apex beat The pulsing of the heart that can be felt over the apex in the fifth left intercostal space (between the ribs) about 8 to 9 cm from the midline cardiac output The amount of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle per minute ductus arteri_os_us A vessel between the pulmonary artery and the aorta that bypasses

DUK-tus ar-te-fe-O-sus the lungs in fetal circulation. Failure to close after birth is called patent (PA-tent) ductus arteriosus.

Normal Structure and Function, continued

fora_men o_vale _

An opening between the two atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs

for-A-men o-VAL-1

in fetal circulation. Failure to close after birth results in a septal defect.

Korotkoff sounds

Arterial sounds heard with a stethoscope during determination of

ko-rot-KOFS

blood pressure with a cuff

perfusion

The passage of fluid, such as blood, through an organ or tissue

per-FU-zhun

precordium

The anterior region over the heart and the lower part of the thorax;

prl-KOR-de-um

adjective, precordial

pulse pressure

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

sinus rhythm

A normal heart rhythm originating from the sinoatrial (SA) node

stroke volume

The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each beat

Valsalva maneuver

Bearing down, as in childbirth or defecation, by attempting to exhale

val-SAL-va

forcefully with the nose and throat closed. This action has an effect

on the cardiovascular system.

SYMPTOMS AND CONDITIONS

bruit

An abnormal sound heard in auscultation

brwe

cardiac tamponade

Pathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac. May result

tam-pon-AD

from pericarditis or injury to the heart or great vessels.

coarctation of the aorta

Localized narrowing of the aorta

ko-ark-TA-shun

ectopic beat

A heartbeat that originates from some part of the heart other than the

ek-TOP-ik

SA node

extrasystole

Premature contraction of the heart that occurs separately from the nor-

eks-tra-SIS-tO-le

mal beat and originates from a part of the heart other than the SA node

flutter

Very rapid (200 to 300 beats per minute) but regular contractions, as

in the atria or the ventricles

hypotension

A condition of lower-than-normal blood pressure

hi -po-TEN-shun

intermitte_nt claudication

Pain in a muscle during exercise caused by inadequate blood supply.

claw-di-KA-shun

The pain disappears with rest.

mitral valve prolapse

Movement of the cusps of the mitral valve into the left atrium when

the ventricles contract

occlusive vascular disease

Arteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, usually peripheral vessels

palpitati_on

A sensation of abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat

pal-pi-TA-shun

pitting edema

Edema that retains the impression of a finger pressed firmly into the

skin

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

polyarteritis nodosa

Potentially fatal collagen disease causing inflammation of small vis

no-DO-sa

ceral arteries. Symptoms depend on the organ affected.

Raynaud disease

A disorder characterized by abnormal constriction of peripheral ves-

ra-NO

sels in the arms and legs on exposure to cold

r_egurgitati_on

A backward flow, such as the backflow of blood through a defective

re-gur-ji-TA-shun

valve

sta_sis

Stoppage of normal blood normal flow, as of blood or urine. Blood

STA-sis

stasis may lead to dermatitis and ulcer formation.

subacute bacterial

Growth of bacteria in a heart or valves previously damaged by

endocarditis (SBE)

rheumatic fever

tetralogy of Fallot

A combination of four congenital heart abnormalities: pulmonary

fal-O

artery stenosis, interventricular septal defect, displacement of the

aorta to the right, right ventricular hypertrophy

thromboangiitis

Inflammation and thrombus formation resulting in occlusion of small

obliterans

vessels, especially in the legs. Most common in young men and corre-

lated with heavy smoking. Thrombotic occlusion of leg vessels in

young men leading to gangrene of the feet. Patients show a hypersen-

sitivity to tobacco. Also called Buerger disease.

vegetation

Irregular outgrowths of bacteria on the heart valves; associated with

rheumatic fever

Wolff-Parkinson-White

A cardiac arrhythmia consisting of tachycardia and a premature ven-

syndrome (WPW)

tricular beat caused by an alternate conduction pathway

DIAGNOSIS

cardiac catheterization

Passage of a catheter into the heart through a vessel to inject a con

trast medium for imaging, diagnosing abnormalities, obtaining sam-

ples, or measuring pressure

central venous

Pressure in the superior vena cava

pressure (CVP)

cineangio_cardiogra_phy_

The photographic recording of fluoroscopic images of the heart and

sin-e-an-jje-o-kar-de-OG-ra-fe

large vessels using motion picture techniques

Doppler echocardiography

An imaging method used to study the rate and pattern of blood flow

enzyme studies

Measurement of serum levels of enzymes that are released in increased

amounts from damaged heart tissue. These include CK (creatine

kinase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), AST (aspartate amino

transferase), and ALT (alanine aminotransferase).

heart scan

Imaging of the heart after injection of a radioactive isotope. The PYP

(pyrophosphate) scan using technetium-99m (99mTc) is used to test

for myocardial infarction because the isotope is taken up by damaged

tissue. The MUGA (multigated acquisition) scan gives information

on heart function.

Diagnosis, continued

Holter monitor

A portable device that can record up to 24 hours of an individual's ECG readings during normal activity

homocysteine ho-mo-SIS-ten

An amino acid that at higher-than-normal levels in the blood is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease

phlebotomist fle-BOT-o-mist

Technician who specializes in drawing blood

p ho nocardiography fä-nä-kar-de-OG-ra-fe

Electronic recording of heart sounds

plethysmography pl e-thiz-MOG-ra-fe

Measurement of changes in the size of a part based on the amount of blood contained in or passing through it. Impedance plethysmogra-phy measures changes in electrical resistance and is used in diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis.

pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP)

Pressure measured by a catheter in a branch of the pulmonary artery. It is an indirect measure of pressure in the left atrium.

stress test

Evaluation of physical fitness by continuous ECG monitoring during exercise. In a thallium stress test, a radioactive isotope of thallium is administered to trace blood flow through the heart during exercise.

Swan-Ganz catheter

A cardiac catheter with a balloon at the tip that is used to measure pulmonary arterial pressure. It is flow-guided through a vein into the right side of the heart and then into the pulmonary artery.

transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)

Use of an ultrasound transducer placed endoscopically into the esophagus to obtain images of the heart

tr iglycerides tri -GLIS-er-i dz

Simple fats that circulate in the bloodstream

ventricu lography ven-trik-u-LOG-ra-fe

X-ray study of the ventricles of the heart after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter

TREATMENT AND SURGICAL PROCEDURES

atherectom y ath-er-EK-to-me

Removal of atheromatous plaque from the lining of a vessel. May be done by open surgery or through the lumen of the vessel.

automated external defibrillator (AED)

Electronic device that detects arrhythmia and automatically delivers a correct programmed shock. These devices, used on the scene of a heart attack, can prevent death.

commissurotomy kom-i-shur-OT-o-me

Surgical incision of a scarred mitral valve to increase the size of the valve opening

embo lectom y em-bo-LEK-to-me

Surgical removal of an embolus

implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

A battery-powered device that can shock the heart during fibrillation to restore a normal rhythm. The ICD is implanted under the collarbone. A lead wire is threaded through the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle (Fig. 9-17).

Treatment and Surgical Procedures, continued

intra-aortic balloon

A mechanical-assist device that consists of an inflatable balloon

pump (IABP)

pump inserted through the femoral artery into the thoracic aorta. It

inflates during diastole to improve coronary circulation and deflates

before systole to allow blood ejection from the heart.

left ventricular assist

A pump that takes over the function of the left ventricle in delivering

device (LVAD)

blood into the systemic circuit. These devices are used to assist

patients awaiting heart transplantation or those who are recovering

from heart failure.

stent

A small metal device in the shape of a coil or slotted tube that is

placed inside an artery to keep the vessel open after balloon angio-

plasty (Fig. 9-18).

MEDICATIONS

angiotensin-converting

A drug that lowers blood pressure by blocking the formation in the

enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

blood of angiotensin II, a substance that normally acts to increase

blood pressure

angiotensin II receptor

A drug that blocks tissue receptors for angiotensin II

antagonist

antiarrhythmic agent

A drug that regulates the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat

beta-adrenergic

Drug that decreases the rate and strength of heart contractions

blocking agent

calcium channel blocker

Drug that controls the rate and force of heart contraction by regulat-

ing calcium entrance into the cells

digitalis

A drug that slows and strengthens heart muscle contractions

dij-i-TAL-is

d_iu_retic

Drug that eliminates fluid by increasing the output of urine by the

di -u-RET-ik

kidneys. Lowered blood volume decreases the workload of the heart.

h_ypolipidem_ic agent

Drug that lowers serum cholesterol

hi -po-lip-i-DE-mik

li_doc_ain_e

A local anesthetic that is used intravenously to treat cardiac

Ll-do-kan

arrhythmias

n_itro_glycerin

A drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris to dilate coronary

ni -tro-GLIS-er-in

vessels

statins

Drugs that act to lower lipids in the blood. The drug names end with

-statin, such as lovastatin, pravastatin, atorvastatin.

streptokinase (SK)

An enzyme used to dissolve blood clots

strep-to-KI-nas

tissue plasminogen

A drug used to dissolve blood clots. It activates production of a sub-

activator (tPA)

stance (plasmin) in the blood that normally dissolves clots.

vaso_dil_ato_r

A drug that widens blood vessels and improves blood flow

vas-o-di -LA-tor

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator
FIGURE 9-17. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
Intracoronary Defibrillator

FIGURE 9-18. Intracoronary artery stent. (A) Stent closed, before balloon inflation. (B) Stent open, balloon inflated. The stent will remain expanded after the balloon is deflated and removed. (Reprinted with permission from Smeltzer SC, Bare BG. Brunner & Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

FIGURE 9-18. Intracoronary artery stent. (A) Stent closed, before balloon inflation. (B) Stent open, balloon inflated. The stent will remain expanded after the balloon is deflated and removed. (Reprinted with permission from Smeltzer SC, Bare BG. Brunner & Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

ABBREVIATIONS

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

LVAD

Left ventricular assist device

AED

Automated external defibrillator

LVEDP

Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure

AF

Atrial fibrillation

LVH

Left ventricular hypertrophy

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase (SGPT)

MI

Myocardial infarction

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

mm Hg

Millimeters of mercury

APC

Atrial premature complex

MR

Mitral regurgitation, reflux

AR

Aortic regurgitation

MS

Mitral stenosis

AS

Aortic stenosis; arteriosclerosis

MUGA

Multigated acquisition (scan)

ASCVD

Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease

MVP

Mitral valve prolapse

ASD

Atrial septal defect

MVR

Mitral valve replacement

ASHD

Arteriosclerotic heart disease

NSR

Normal sinus rhythm

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT)

P

Pulse

AT

Atrial tachycardia

PAC

Premature atrial contraction

AV

Atrioventricular

PAP

Pulmonary arterial pressure

BBB

Bundle branch block (left or right)

PMI

Point of maximal impulse

BP

Blood pressure

PSVT

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

bpm

Beats per minute

PTCA

Percutaneous transluminal coronary

CABG

Coronary artery bypass graft

angioplasty

CAD

Coronary artery disease

PVC

Premature ventricular contraction

CCU

Coronary/cardiac care unit

PVD

Peripheral vascular disease

CHD

Coronary heart disease

PWP

Pulmonary (artery) wedge pressure

CHF

Congestive heart failure

PYP

Pyrophosphate (scan)

C(P)K

Creatine (phospho)kinase

S1

The first heart sound

CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

S2

The second heart sound

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

SA

Sinoatrial

CVI

Chronic venous insufficiency

SBE

Subacute bacterial endocarditis

CVP

Central venous pressure

SGOT

Serum glutamic oxaloacetic trans

DOE

Dyspnea on exertion

aminase (AST)

DVT

Deep vein thrombosis

SK

Streptokinase

ECG (EKG)

Electrocardiogram

SVT

Supraventricular tachycardia

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

99mTc

Technetium-99m

HTN

Hypertension

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

IABP

Intra-aortic balloon pump

tPA

Tissue plasminogen activator

ICD

Implantable cardioverter defibrillator

VAD

Ventricular assist device

IVCD

Intraventricular conduction delay

VF

Ventricular fibrillation

JVP

Jugular venous pulse

VLDL

Very low density lipoprotein

LAD

Left anterior descending (coronary artery)

VPC

Ventricular premature complex

LAHB

Left anterior hemiblock

VSD

Ventricular septal defect

LDH

Lactic dehydrogenase

VT

Ventricular tachycardia

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

VTE

Venous thromboembolism

LV

Left ventricle

WPW

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment