Supplementary Terms

NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION*

acetabulum

The bony socket in the hip bone that holds the head of the femur

as-e-TAB-U-lum

annulus fibrosus

The outer ringlike portion of an intervertebral disk

AN-U-lus fi-BRO-sus

atlas

The first cervical vertebra (see Fig. 19-3; root atlant/o)

AT-las

axis

The second cervical vertebra (see Fig. 19-3)

calvaria

The domelike upper portion of the skull

kal-VAR-e-a

Normal Structure and Function, continued

coxa

Hip

KOK-sa

cruciate ligaments

Ligaments that cross in the knee joint to connect the tibia and fibula.

KRÛ-shë-ât

They are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cru

ciate ligament (PCL). Cruciate means "shaped like a cross."

genu

The knee

JE-nu

glenoid cavity

The bony socket in the scapula that articulates with the head of the

GLEN-oyd

humerus

hallux

The great toe

HAL-uks

isch_ium

The lower portion of the pelvic bone (see Fig. 19-4)

IS-ke-um

malle_olus

The projection of the tibia or fibula on either side of the ankle

ma-LE-o-lus

meniscus

Crescent-shaped disc of cartilage found in certain joints, such as the

me-NIS-kus

knee joint. In the knee, the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus

separate the tibia and femur. Plural, menisci (me-NIS-ki); meniscus

means "crescent."

olecranon

The process of the ulna that forms the elbow

o-LEK-ra-non

os

Bone; plural, ossa

osse_ous

Pertaining to bone

OS-e-us

patella

The kneecap

pa-TEL-la

pubis

The anterior part of the pelvic bone. The two pubic bones join anteri-

PU-bis

orly at the pubic symphysis (see Fig. 19-4).

symphysis pubis

The anterior joint of the pelvis, formed by the union of the two pubic

SIM-fi-sis

bones (see Fig. 19-4); also called pubic symphysis

*See Display 19-2 for a list of bone markings.

SYMPTOMS AND CONDITIONS

achondroplasia

Decreased growth of cartilage in the growth plate of long bones

a-kon-dro-PLA-zha

resulting in dwarfism; a genetic disorder

bunion

Inflammation and enlargement of the metatarsal joint of the great

BUN-yun

toe, usually with displacement of the great toe toward the other toes

bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa, a small fluid-filled sac near a joint; causes

bur-SI -tis

include injury, irritation, and joint disease; the shoulder, hip, elbow,

and knee are common sites

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

carpal tunnel syndrome

Numbness and weakness of the hand caused by pressure on the me-

dian nerve as it passes through a tunnel formed by carpal bones

chondro_ma

A benign tumor of cartilage

kon-DRO-ma

curvature of the spine

An exaggerated curve of the spine; includes scoliosis (sideways curve

in any region), lordosis (lumbar curve), and kyphosis (thoracic

curve; Fig. 19-14)

Ewing tumor

A bone tumor that usually appears in children 5 to 15 years of age. It

begins in the shaft of a bone and spreads readily to other bones. It

may respond to radiation therapy, but then returns. Also called

Ewing sarcoma.

exostosis_

A bony outgrowth from the surface of a bone

eks-os-TO-sis

giant cell tumor

A bone tumor that usually appears in children and young adults. The

ends of the bones are destroyed, commonly at the knee, by a large

mass that does not metastasize.

hammerto_e

Change in position of the toe joints so that the toe takes on a clawlike

HAM-er-to

appearance and the first joint protrudes upward, causing irritation

and pain on walking.

hallux valgus

Painful condition involving lateral displacement of the great toe at

the metatarsal joint. There is also enlargement of the metatarsal head

and bunion formation.

Heberden nodes

Small, hard nodules formed in the cartilage of the distal joints of the

HE-ber-den

fingers in osteoarthritis

hemarthrosis_

Bleeding into a joint cavity

he-mar-THRO-sis

kyphosis

An exaggerated curve of the spine in the thoracic region; hunchback,

ki -FO-sis

humpback (see Fig. 19-14)

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

Degeneration (osteochondrosis) of the proximal growth center of the

leg-kahl-va-PER-tez

femur. The bone is eventually restored, but there may be deformity

and weakness. Most common in young boys. Also called coxa plana.

lordos_is

An exaggerated curve of the spine in the lumbar region; swayback

lor-DO-sis

(see Fig. 19-14)

m_ultipl_e myeloma

A cancer of blood-forming cells in bone marrow (see Chapter 10)

mi -e-LO-ma

ne_ur_ogenic arthropathy _

Degenerative disease of joints caused by impaired nervous stimula-

nu-ro-JEN-ik ar-THROP-a the

tion; most common cause is diabetes mellitus; Charcot arthropathy

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Degeneration (osteochondrosis) of the proximal growth center of the

oz-good-SHLAHT-er

tibia causing pain and tendinitis at the knee

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

oste oc hondroma

A benign tumor consisting of cartilage and bone

os-te-o-kon-DRO-ma

oste oc hondrosi s

Disease of the growth center of a bone in children; degeneration of

os-te-o-kon-DRO-sis

the tissue is followed by recalcification

oste odystroph y

Abnormal bone development

os-te-o-DIS-tro-fe

osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)

A hereditary disease resulting in the formation of brittle bones that

os-te-o-JEN-e-sis

fracture easily. There is faulty synthesis of collagen, the main struc-

im-per-FEK-ta

tural protein in connective tissue.

osteoma

A benign bone tumor that usually remains small and localized

oste open ia

Lack of bone tissue; decrease of bone density as seen in osteoporosis

os-te-o-PE-ne-a

Reiter syndrome

Chronic polyarthritis that usually affects young men; occurs after a

RI-ter

bacterial infection and is common in those infected with HIV; may

also involve the eyes and genitourinary tract

scoliosi s

A sideways curvature of the spine in any region (see Fig. 19-14)

sko-le-O-sis

spondylo listhesis

A forward displacement of one vertebra over another (-listhesis)

spon-di-lo-LIS-the-sis

means "a slipping")

spondylosis

Degeneration and ankylosis of the vertebrae resulting in pressure on

spon-di-LO-sis

the spinal cord and nerve roots

sprain

Trauma to a joint involving the ligaments

subluxation

A partial dislocation

sub-luk-SA-shun

talipes

A deformity of the foot, especially one occurring congenitally;

TAL-i-pez

clubfoot

valgus

Bent outward

VAL-gus

varus

Bent inward

VAR-us

von Recklinghausen disease

Loss of bone tissue caused by increased parathyroid hormone; bones

become decalcified, deformed, and fracture easily

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

allograft

Graft of tissue between individuals of the same species but different

AL-o-graft

genetic makeup; homograft, allogenic graft (see autograft)

arthrocentesi s

Puncture and removal of fluid (aspiration) of a joint

ar-thro-sen-TE-sis

arthro clasi a

Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement

ar-thro-KLA-zha

Diagnosis and Treatment, continued

arthroplasty

AR-thro-plas-te

Partial or total replacement of a joint with a prosthesis

arthroscope

An endoscope for examining the interior of a joint (Fig. 19-15); may also be used to perform surgery on the joint, for example, to remove damaged cartilage

arthroscopy ar-THROS-ko-pe

Use of an arthroscope to examine the interior of a joint or to perform surgery on the joint (see Fig. 19-15)

aspirat_ion as-pi-RA-shun

Removal by suction, as removal of fluid from a body cavity; also inhalation, such as accidental inhalation of material into the respiratory tract

Graft of tissue taken from a site on or in the body of the person receiving the graft; autologous graft (see allograft)

autog_raft

AW-to-graft

b iphosph onate bi -FOS-fo-nat

A drug that inhibits resorption (loss) of bone tissue in the treatment of osteoporosis and other disorders that weaken the bones (an example is Fosamax)

calciton in kal-si-TO-nin

A hormone from the thyroid gland that decreases resorption (loss) of bone tissue; used in the treatment of Paget disease and osteoporosis; also called thyrocalcitonin

chondro itin kon-DRO-i-tin

A complex polysaccharide found in connective tissue; used as a dietary supplement, usually with glucosamine, for treatment of joint pain

glucosamine

A dietary supplement used in the treatment of joint pain

goni ometer go-ne-OM-e-ter

A device used to measure joint angles and movements (root goni/o means "angle")

laminectomy lam-i-NEK-to-me

Excision of the posterior arch (lamina) of a vertebra

meniscectomy men-i-SEK-to-me

Removal of the crescent-shaped cartilage (meniscus) of the knee joint

m yelogram Ml-e-lo-gram

Radiograph of the spinal canal after injection of a radiopaque dye; used to evaluate a herniated disk

osteop lasty

OS-te-o-plas-te

Scraping and removal of damaged bone from a joint

prosthes is

PROS-the-sis

An artificial organ or part, such as an artificial limb

selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)

A drug that decreases resorption (loss) of bone tissue in the treatment of osteoporosis; it binds to certain estrogen receptors, activating some estrogenic pathways and inhibiting others [an example is raloxifene (Evista)]

Abnormal Spinal Curvatures

FIGURE 19-14. Abnormalities of the spinal curves. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Sarcom Ewing Osul Sacru

FIGURE 19-15. Arthroscopic examination of the knee. Endoscope is inserted between projections at the end of the femur to view the posterior of the knee.

DISPLAY 19-2 Bone Markings

MARKING

DESCRIPTION

condyle KON-dil

smooth, rounded protuberance at a joint

crest

raised, narrow ridge (see iliac crest in Fig. 19-4)

epicondyle ep-i-KON-dTl

projection above a condyle

facet FAS-et

small, flattened surface

fora men for-A-men

rounded opening (see foramen for spinal nerve in Fig. 19-3)

fossa FOS-a

hollow cavity

mea tus me-A-tus

long channel within a bone

process

projection (see mastoid process and styloid process in Fig. 19-2)

s inus Sl-nus

air-filled space or channel

spine

sharp projection (see ischial spine in Fig. 19-4)

trochanter tro-KAN-ter

large, blunt projection as at the top of the femur

tu bercle TU-ber-kl

small, rounded projection

tuberosity tU-ber-OS-i-te

large, rounded projection

AE

Above the elbow

NSAID(s)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug(s)

AK

Above the knee

OA

Osteoarthritis

ASF

Anterior spinal fusion

OI

Osteogenesis imperfecta

BE

Below the elbow

ORIF

Open reduction internal fixation

BK

Below the knee

ortho,

Orthopedics

BMD

Bone mineral density

ORTH

C

Cervical vertebra; numbered C1-C7

PIP

Proximal interphalangeal (joint)

Co

Coccyx; coccygeal

PSF

Posterior spinal fusion

DEXA

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (scan)

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

DIP

Distal interphalangeal (joint)

S

Sacrum; sacral

DJD

Degenerative joint disease

SERM

Selective estrogen receptor modulator

Fx

Fracture

T

Thoracic vertebra; numbered T1-T12

HNP

Herniated nucleus pulposus

THA

Total hip arthroplasty

IM

Intramedullary

TKA

Total knee arthroplasty

L

Lumbar vertebra; numbered L1-L5

TMJ

Temporomandibular joint

MCP

Metacarpophalangeal (joint)

Tx

Traction

MTP

Metatarsophalangeal (joint)

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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