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NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

carina

A projection of the lowest tracheal cartilage that forms a ridge be-

ka-RI-na

tween the two bronchi. Used as a landmark for endoscopy. Any ridge

or ridgelike structure (from a Latin word that means "keel").

hilum

A depression in an organ where vessels and nerves enter; also called

HI-lum

hilus

narei

The external openings of the nose; the nostrils (singular, naris)

NA-rez

nasal septum

The partition that divides the nasal cavity into two parts (root sept/o

means "septum")

SYMPTOMS AND CONDITIONS

anoxia

Lack or absence of oxygen in the tissues; often used incorrectly to

an-OK-se-a

mean hypoxia

asphyxia

Condition caused by inadequate intake of oxygen; suffocation

as-FIK-se-a

(literally "lack of pulse")

Baoa respirations

Deep, fast breathing interrupted by sudden pauses; seen in spinal

ba-O

meningitis and other disorders of the central nervous system

bronchospaasm

Narrowing of the bronchi because of spasm of the smooth muscle in

BRONG-ko-spazm

their walls; common in cases of asthma and bronchitis

Chaeyne-Stokes respiration

A repeating cycle of gradually increased and then decreased respira-

chan-stokes

tion followed by a period of apnea; caused by depression of the

breathing centers of the nervous system; seen in cases of coma and in

terminally ill patients

cor pulmoanalae a

Enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart because of disease of

kor pul-mo-NA-ie

the lungs or their blood vessels

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

coryza

Acute inflammation of the nasal passages with profuse nasal

kO-RI-za

discharge

croup

A childhood disease usually caused by a viral infection that involves

krUp

inflammation and obstruction of the upper airway. Croup is charac

terized by a barking cough, difficulty breathing, and laryngeal spasm.

deviated septum

A shifted nasal septum; may require surgical correction

epiglottitis

Inflammation of the epiglottis that may lead to obstruction of the upper

ep-i-glo-TI-tis

airway. Commonly seen in cases of croup (also spelled epiglottiditis).

epistaxis

Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed (Greek -staxis means "dripping")

ep-i-STAK-sis

fremitus

A vibration, especially as felt through the chest wall on palpation

FREM-i-tus

Kussmaul respiration

Rapid and deep gasping respiration without pause; characteristic of

KOOS-mawl

severe acidosis

pleural friction rub

A sound heard on auscultation that is produced by the rubbing to-

gether of the two layers of the pleura; a common sign of pleurisy

rale

Abnormal chest sounds heard when air enters small airways or alveoli

rahl

containing fluid; usually heard during inspiration (plural, rales [rahlz])

rhonchi

Abnormal chest sounds produced in airways with accumulated

RONG-ki

fluids; more noticeable during expiration (singular, rhonchus)

stridoor

A harsh, high-pitched sound caused by obstruction of an upper air

STRl-dor

passageway

tussis

A cough. An antitussive drug is one that relieves or prevents coughing.

TUS-is

wheeze

A whistling or sighing sound caused by narrowing of a respiratory

passageway

DISORDERS

miliary tuberculosis

Acute generalized form of tuberculosis with formation of minute tu-

MIL-e-ar-e

bercles that resemble millet seeds

pertussis

An acute, infectious disease characterized by a cough ending in a

per-TUS-is

whooping inspiration; whooping cough

small cell carcinoma

A highly malignant type of bronchial tumor involving small, undif

ferentiated cells; "oat cell" carcinoma

sudden infant death

The sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant;

syndrome (SIDS)

crib death

DIAGNOSIS

Mantoux test

A test for tuberculosis in which PPD (tuberculin) is injected into the

man-TOO

skin. The test does not differentiate active from inactive cases.

Diagnosis, continued

medi astinoscopy

Examination of the mediastinum by means of an endoscope inserted

me-de-as-ti-NOS-ko-pe

through an incision above the sternum

plethysmograph

An instrument that measures changes in gas volume and pressure

ple-THIZ-mo-graf

during respiration

pneu motachometer

A device for measuring air flow

nu-mo-tak-OM-e-ter

thoracoscopy

Examination of the pleural cavity through an endoscope;

thor-a-KOS-ko-pl

pleuroscopy

tine test

A test for tuberculosis in which PPD (tuberculin) is introduced into

the skin with a multipronged device. The test does not differentiate

active from inactive cases.

TREATMENT

aerosol therapy

Treatment by inhalation of a drug or water in spray form

continuous positive

Use of a mechanical respirator to maintain pressure throughout the

airway pressure (CPAP)

respiratory cycle in a patient who is breathing spontaneously

extubation

Removal of a previously inserted tube

intermittent positive

Use of a ventilator to inflate the lungs at intervals under positive

pressure breathing (IPPB)

pressure during inhalation

intermittent positive

Use of a mechanical ventilator to force air into the lungs while allow-

pressure ventilation (IPPV)

ing for passive exhalation

nasal cannula

A two-pronged plastic device inserted into the nostrils for delivery of

KAN-u-la

oxygen (Fig. 11-10)

orthopnei c position

An upright or semiupright position that aids breathing

or-thop-NE-ik

positive end-expiratory

Use of a mechanical ventilator to increase the volume of gas in the

pressure (PEEP)

lungs at the end of exhalation, thus improving gas exchange

postural drainage

Use of body position to drain secretions from the lungs by gravity.

POS-tu-ral

The patient is placed so that secretions will move passively into the

larger airways for elimination.

thoracic gas volume

The volume of gas in the thoracic cavity calculated from measure

(TGV, VTG)

ments made with a body plethysmograph

SURGERY

adenoidectomy

Surgical removal of the adenoids

ad-e-noyd-EK-to-me

intu_bat_ion

Insertion of a tube into a hollow organ, such as into the larynx or tra

in-tu-BA-shun

chea for entrance of air (Fig. 11-11). Patients may be intubated dur-

ing surgery for administration of anesthesia or to maintain an airway.

Endotracheal intubation may be used as an emergency measure when

airways are blocked.

Surgery, continued

ïô-BEK-tO-mê

Surgical removal of a lobe of the lung or of another organ

pneumoplasty

NU-mO-plas-te

Plastic surgery of the lung. In reduction pneumoplasty, nonfunctional portions of the lung are removed, as in cases of advanced emphysema.

tracheotomy

Incision of the trachea through the neck, usually to establish an airway in cases of tracheal obstruction

tracheostomy

Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea to form an airway or to prepare for the insertion of a tube for ventilation (Fig. 11-12), also the opening thus created

DRUGS

antihistamine an-ti-HIS-ta-men

Agent that prevents responses mediated by histamine, such as allergic and inflammatory reactions

antitussive an-ti-TUS-iv

Drug that prevents or relieves coughing

bronchodil_ato_r brong-kO-DI-la-tor

Drug that relieves bronchial spasm and widens the bronchi

decongestant de-kon-JES-tant

Agent that reduces congestion or swelling

expectorant ek-SPEK-tO-rant

Agent that aids in removal of bronchopulmonary secretions

isoniazid (INH) i -sO-NI-a-zid

Drug used to treat tuberculosis

m_uco_lytic mu-kO-LIT-ik

Agent that loosens mucus to aid in its removal

FIGURE 11-10. A nasal cannula. (Reprinted with permission from Taylor C, Lillis C, LeMone P. Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.)

Nasal Cannula Care

FIGURE 11-10. A nasal cannula. (Reprinted with permission from Taylor C, Lillis C, LeMone P. Fundamentals of Nursing: The Art and Science of Nursing Care. 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.)

FIGURE 11-11. Endotracheal intubation. (A) Nasal endotracheal catheter in proper position. (B) Oral endotracheal intubation.

FIGURE 11-12. A tracheostomy tube in place.

FIGURE 11-12. A tracheostomy tube in place.

Endotracheal Intubation Peep

ABBREVIATIONS

ABG(s)

Arterial blood gas(es)

O2

Oxygen

AFB

Acid-fast bacillus (usually Myco

PaCO2

Arterial partial pressure of carbon

bacterium tuberculosis)

dioxide

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome;

PaO2

Arterial partial pressure of oxygen

shock lung

PCP

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

ARF

Acute respiratory failure

PEEP

Positive end-expiratory pressure

BS

Breath sounds

PEFR

Peak expiratory flow rate

C

Compliance

PFT

Pulmonary function test(s)

CF

Cystic fibrosis

PIP

Peak inspiratory pressure

CO2

Carbon dioxide

PND

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

COLD

Chronic obstructive lung disease

PPD

Purified protein derivative (tuberculin)

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary

R

Respiration

disease

RDS

Respiratory distress syndrome

CPAP

Continuous positive airway pressure

RLL

Right lower lobe (of lung)

CXR

Chest radiograph, chest x-ray

RML

Right middle lobe (of lung)

ERV

Expiratory reserve volume

RSV

Respiratory syncytial virus

FEV

Forced expiratory volume

RUL

Right upper lobe (of lung)

FRC

Functional residual capacity

RV

Residual volume

FVC

Forced vital capacity

SIDS

Sudden infant death syndrome

IC

Inspiratory capacity

SpO2

Oxygen percent saturation

INH

Isoniazid

TB

Tuberculosis

IPPB

Intermittent positive pressure

T & A

Tonsils and adenoids; tonsillectomy and

breathing

adenoidectomy

IPPV

Intermittent positive pressure

TGV

Thoracic gas volume

ventilation

TLC

Total lung capacity

IRV

Inspiratory reserve volume

TV

Tidal volume

LLL

Left lower lobe (of lung)

URI

Upper respiratory infection

LUL

Left upper lobe (of lung)

VC

Vital capacity

MEFR

Maximal expiratory flow rate

Vtg

Thoracic gas volume

MMFR

Maximum midexpiratory flow rate

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Responses

  • marja
    What is the name of the lowest tracheal cartilage that forms a ridge?
    8 years ago
  • Peter
    How to position nasal cannula?
    8 years ago
  • Kathrin
    How to insert Endotracheal Intubation?
    7 years ago
  • mauro
    What is medical terminologist exportant period?
    1 year ago

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