Phonetic pronunciations are provided in the text at every opportunity, even in the answer keys. Take advantage of these aids. Repeat the word aloud as you learn to recognize it in print. Be aware that word parts may change in pronunciation when they are combined in different ways. The following pronunciation guidelines apply throughout the text.


(1st cervical) Axis

(2nd cervical)

Transverse process

Intervertebral disk

Body (centrum) of vertebra

Spinous process

Foramen for spinal nerve



FIGURE 1-3. The coccyx of the spine looks like the bill of a cuckoo. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

A vowel (a, e, i, o, u) gets a short pronunciation if it has no pronunciation mark over it, such as: a as in hat e as in met i as in bin

0 as in some u as in run

A short line over the vowel gives it a long pronunciation: a as in say e as in tea

The accented syllable in each word is shown with capital letters.

Note that pronunciations may vary from place to place. Only one pronunciation for each word is given here, but be prepared for differences.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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