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A pituitary adenoma (tumor) usually increases secretion of growth hormone or ACTH. Less commonly, a tumor affects the secretion of prolactin. An excess of growth hormone in children causes gigantism. In

DISPLAY 16-2 Disorders Associated With Endocrine Dysfunction*




growth hormone

gigantism (children), acromegaly (adults)

dwarfism (children)

antidiuretic hormone

syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)

diabetes insipidus



Addison disease


Cushing syndrome

Addison disease

thyroid hormone

Graves disease, thyrotoxicosis

congenital hypothyroidism (children), myxedema (adults)



diabetes mellitus

parathyroid hormone

bone degeneration

tetany (muscle spasms)

*Refer to key terms for pronunciations and descriptions.

adults it causes acromegaly, characterized by enlargement of the hands, feet, jaw, and facial features. Treatment is by surgery to remove the tumor (adenomectomy) or by drugs to reduce the level of growth hormone in the blood. Excess ACTH overstimulates the adrenal cortex, resulting in Cushing disease. Increased prolactin causes milk secretion, or galactorrhea, in both males and females. Radiographic studies in cases of pituitary adenoma usually show enlargement of the bony structure in the skull (sella turcica) that contains the pituitary.

Hypofunction of the pituitary, such as is caused by tumor or interruption of blood supply to the gland, may involve a single hormone but usually affects all functions and is referred to as panhypopituitarism. The widespread effects of this condition include dwarfism (from lack of growth hormone), lack of sexual development and sexual function, fatigue, and weakness.

A specific lack of ADH from the posterior pituitary results in diabetes insipidus, in which the kidneys have a decreased ability to conserve water. Symptoms are polyuria (elimination of large amounts of urine) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Diabetes insipidus should not be confused with diabetes mellitus, a disorder of glucose metabolism described below. The two diseases share the symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia but have entirely different causes. Diabetes mellitus is the more common disorder, and when the term diabetes is used alone, it generally refers to diabetes mellitus. The word diabetes is from the Greek meaning "siphon," referring to the large urinary output in both forms of diabetes.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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