Other Endocrine Tissues

The thymus, described in Chapter 9, is considered an endocrine gland because it secretes a hormone, thymosin, which stimulates the T lymphocytes of the immune system. The gonads (Chapters 14 and 15) are also included because, in addition to producing the sex cells, they secrete hormones. Other organs, including the

Memmlers The Heart And Heart Disease

FIGURE 16-5. Microscopic view of pancreatic cells. Light staining islet cells are seen among the cell clusters that produce digestive juices. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

FIGURE 16-5. Microscopic view of pancreatic cells. Light staining islet cells are seen among the cell clusters that produce digestive juices. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

stomach, kidney, heart, and small intestine, also produce hormones. However, they have other major functions and are discussed with the systems to which they belong.

Finally, prostaglandins are a group of hormones produced by many cells. They have a variety of effects, including stimulation of uterine contractions, promotion of the inflammatory response, and vasomotor activities. They are called prostaglandins because they were first discovered in the prostate gland.

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NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

adrenal gland a-DRE-nal

A gland on the upper surface of the kidney. The outer region (cortex) secretes steroid hormones; the inner region (medulla) secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) (root adren/o)

endocrine

EN-do-krin

Pertaining to a ductless gland that secretes directly into the blood

hormone

HOR-mon

A secretion of an endocrine gland. A substance that travels in the blood and has a regulatory effect on tissues, organs, or glands.

hypophysis hi -POF-i-sis

The pituitary gland (root hypophys); named from hypo meaning "below" and physis meaning "growing" because the gland grows below the hypothalamus

hypothalamus hi -po-THAL-a-mus

A portion of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and is active in maintaining homeostasis

_pancreatic islets

I-lets

Clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas that secrete hormones that regulate sugar metabolism; also called islets of Langerhans or islet cells (root insul/o, meaning "island")

parathyro_id glands par-a-THI-royd

Small glands on the back of the thyroid that act to increase blood calcium levels; there are usually four to six parathyroid glands (root parathyr/o, parathyroid/o); the name literally means "near the thyroid"

Normal Structure and Function, continued pituitary gland A small endocrine gland at the base of the brain. The anterior lobe secretes pi-TU-i-tar-e growth hormone and hormones that stimulate other glands; the posterior lobe releases ADH and oxytocin manufactured in the hypothalamus.

prostaglandins A group of hormones produced throughout the body that have a variety of pros-ta-GLAN-dinz effects, including stimulation of uterine contractions and regulation of blood pressure, blood clotting, and inflammation receptor A site on the cell membrane to which a substance, such as a hormone, attaches steroid hormone A hormone made from lipids and including the sex hormones and the

STER-oyd hormones of the adrenal cortex target tissue The specific tissue on which a hormone acts; may also be referred to as the target organ thy_roid gland An endocrine gland on either side of the larynx and upper trachea. It se

THI -royd cretes hormones that affect metabolism and growth and a hormone that regulates calcium balance (root thyr/o, thyroid/o).

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