Medical Term Urine In Cavity

Kidney Function Restoration Program

Kidney Problems Holistic Treatments

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To vein

To waste

Bicarbonate /\ Potassium

3431 Medical
FIGURE 13-7. Peritoneal dialysis. A semipermeable membrane richly supplied with small blood vessels lines the peritoneal cavity. With dialysate dwelling in the peritoneal cavity, waste products diffuse from the network of blood vessels into the dialysate.
Peritoneal Cavity
FIGURE 13-8. Various sites of calculus formation in the urinary tract.

using an endoscope. External shock waves are used to crush stones in the urinary tract in a procedure called extracorporeal (outside the body) shock wave lithotripsy (crushing of stones).

Carcinoma of the bladder has been linked to occupational exposure to chemicals, parasitic infections, and cigarette smoking. A key symptom is sudden, painless hematuria. Often the cancer can be seen by viewing the lining of the bladder with a cystoscope (Fig. 13-9). This instrument can also be used to biopsy tissue for study. If treatment is not effective in permanently removing the tumor, a cystectomy (removal of the bladder) may be necessary. In this case, the ureters must be vented elsewhere, such as directly to the surface of the body through the ileum in an ileal conduit (Fig. 13-10), or to some other portion of the intestine.

Cancer may also involve the kidney and renal pelvis. Additional means for diagnosing cancer and other disorders of the urinary tract include ultrasound, computed tomography scans, and radiographic studies such as intravenous urography (Fig. 13-11), also called intravenous pyelography, and retrograde pyelography.

Urinalysis

Urinalysis (UA) is a simple and widely used method for diagnosing disorders of the urinary tract. It may also reveal disturbances in other systems when abnormal byproducts are eliminated in the urine. In a routine urinalysis, the urine is grossly examined for color and turbidity (a sign of bacteria); specific gravity (a measure of concentration) and pH are recorded; test are performed for chemical components such as glucose, ketones, and hemoglobin; and the urine is examined microscopically for cells, crystals, or casts. In more detailed tests, drugs, enzymes, hormones, and other metabolites may be analyzed and bacterial cultures may be performed.

FIGURE 13-9. Cystoscopy. A lighted cystoscope is introduced into the bladder of a male subject. Sterile fluid is used to inflate the bladder.

Cancer

Cystoscopy

FIGURE 13-9. Cystoscopy. A lighted cystoscope is introduced into the bladder of a male subject. Sterile fluid is used to inflate the bladder.

Foley Catheter
FIGURE 13-10. Ileal conduit.

- Right and left renal pelves

Ureteropelvic junction Left ureter

Right ureter

Urinary bladder

FIGURE 13-11. Intravenous urogram showing the renal pelves, ureters, and urinary bladder. (Reprinted with permission from Erkonen WE, Smith WL. Radiology 101: Basics and Fundamentals of Imaging. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998.)

DISORDERS

acidos is

Excessive acidity of body fluids

as-i-DO-sis

bacte riu ria

Presence of bacteria in the urine

bak-te-re-U-re-a

cast

A solid mold of a renal tubule found in the urine

cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually as a result of infection

sis-TI-tis

dysu ria

Painful or difficult urination

dis-U-re-a

glomeru lon ephriti s

Inflammation of the kidney primarily involving the glomeruli. The acute

glo-mer-u-lo-nef-RI-tis

form usually occurs after an infection elsewhere in the body; the chronic

form varies in cause and usually leads to renal failure.

h ematur ia

Presence of blood in the urine

he-mat-U-re-a

h_ydronephrosis

Collection of urine in the renal pelvis caused by obstruction; causes disten-

hi -dro-nef-RO-sis

tion and atrophy of renal tissue. Also called nephrohydrosis or nephrydrosis.

hyperkalemia

Excess amount of potassium in the blood

hi -per-ka-LE-me-a

oligur ia

Elimination of small amounts of urine

ol-ig-U-re-a

proteinuria

Presence of protein, mainly albumin, in the urine

pro-te-NU-re-a

pyelonephriti s

Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney, usually as a result of

pi -e-lo -ne-FRI-tis

infection

p yu ria

Presence of pus in the urine

pi -U-re-a

renal colic

Radiating pain in the region of the kidney associated with the passage of a

KOL-ik

stone

uremia

Presence in the blood of toxic levels of nitrogen-containing substances,

u-RE-me-a

mainly urea, as a result of renal insufficiency

ure thritis

Inflammation of the urethra, usually as a result of infection

u-re-THRI-tis

uri nary stasis

Stoppage or stagnation of the flow of urine

STA-sis

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

catheterization

Introduction of a tube into a passage, such as through the urethra into the

kath-e-ter-i-ZA-shun

bladder for withdrawal of urine

Diagnosis and Treatment, continued

cystoscope

SlS-to-skop

An instrument for examining the inside of the urinary bladder. Also used for removing foreign objects, for surgery, and for other forms of treatment.

dialysis di -AL-i-sis

Separation of substances by passage through a semipermeable membrane. Dialysis is used to rid the body of unwanted substances when the kidneys are impaired or missing. The two forms of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

hemodialysis he-mo-di -AL-i-sis

Removal of unwanted substances from the blood by passage through a semipermeable membrane

intravenous pyelography (IVP)

Intravenous urography

intravenous urography (IVU)

Radiographic visualization of the urinary tract after intravenous administration of a contrast medium that is excreted in the urine; also called excretory urography or intravenous pyelography, although the latter is less accurate because the procedure shows more than just the renal pelvis

lithotr_ipsy _

LITH-o-trip-se

Crushing of a stone

peritoneal dialysis per-i-to-NE-al

Removal of unwanted substances from the body by introduction of a dia-lyzing fluid into the peritoneal cavity followed by removal of the fluid

retrograde pyelography

Pyelography in which the contrast medium is injected into the kidneys from below, by way of the ureters

specific gravity (SG)

The weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. The specific gravity of normal urine ranges from 1.015 to 1.025. This value may increase or decrease in disease.

_urinalysis u-ri-NAL-i-sis

Laboratory study of the urine. Physical and chemical properties and microscopic appearance are included.

SURGERY

sis-TEK-to-me

Surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

ileal conduit

IL-T-al KON-diT-it

Diversion of urine by connection of the ureters to an isolated segment of the ileum. One end of the segment is sealed, and the other drains through an opening in the abdominal wall (see Fig. 13-10).

lith-OT-o-me

Incision of an organ to remove a stone (calculus)

renal transplantation

Surgical implantation of a donor kidney into a patient

aorta

Supplementary Terms

NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

aldosterone al-DOS-ter-on

A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that regulates electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

clearance

The volume of plasma that can be cleared of a substance by the kidneys per unit of time; renal plasma clearance

creatinine kre-AT-in-in

A nitrogen-containing byproduct of muscle metabolism. An increase in creatinine in the blood is a sign of renal failure.

detrusor muscle de-TRU-sor

The muscle in the bladder wall

diuresis di -u-RE-sis

Increased excretion of urine

glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

The amount of filtrate formed per minute by the nephrons of both kidneys

maximal transport capacity (Tm)

The maximum rate at which a given substance can be transported across the renal tubule; tubular maximum

renal corpuscle

KOR-pus-l

The glomerular capsule and the glomerulus considered as a unit; the filtration device of the kidney

trig_on_e

TRI-gon

A triangle at the base of the bladder formed by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra (see Fig. 13-4)

SYMPTOMS AND CONDITIONS

anuresis an-u-RE-sis

Lack of urination

anuria an-U-re-a

Lack of urine formation

azotemia az-o-TE-me-a

Presence of an increased amount of nitrogenous waste, especially urea, in the blood

azoturia az-o-TU-re-a

Presence of an increased amount of nitrogen-containing compounds, especially urea, in the urine

cystocele sis-to-ssei

Herniation of the bladder into the vagina (see Fig. 15-17); vesicocele

dehydration de-hi -DRA-shun

Excessive loss of body fluids

diabetes Insipidus di -a-BE-tez in-SIP-id-us

A condition caused by inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone resulting in excessive excretion of dilute urine and extreme thirst

enu res is en-u-RE-sis

Involuntary urination, usually at night; bed-wetting

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

epispadias

A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsal sur

ep-i-SPA-de-as

face of the penis as a groove or cleft; anaspadias

glycosuria

Presence of glucose in the urine, as in cases of diabetes mellitus

gli -ko-SU-re-a

horseshoe kidney

A congenital union of the lower poles of the kidneys, resulting in a

horseshoe-shaped organ (Fig. 13-12)

h_ydrou rete r

Distention of the ureter with urine caused by obstruction

hi -dro-u-RE-ter

h_ypopro tei nemia

Decreased amount of protein in the blood; may result from loss of

hi -po-pro-te-NE-me-a

protein because of kidney damage

h_ypospadias

A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the under-

hi -po-SPA-de-as

surface of the penis or into the vagina (Fig. 13-13)

hypovolemia

A decrease in blood volume

hi -po-vo-LE-me-a

incontinence

Inability to retain urine. Incontinence may originate with a neuro-

in-KON-tin-ens

logic disorder, trauma to the spinal cord, weakness of the pelvic mus-

cles, urinary retention, or impaired bladder function. Term also

applies to inability to retain semen or feces.

neurogenic bladder

Any bladder dysfunction that results from a central nervous system

nu-ro-JEN-ik

lesion

noctur ia

Excessive urination at night (noct/o means "night")

nok-TU-re-a

pitting edema

Edema in which the skin, when pressed firmly with the finger, will

maintain the depression produced

polycystic kidney

A hereditary condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain

disease

many cysts

polydipsia

Excessive thirst

pol-i-DIP-sSe-a

poly_ur ia

Elimination of large amounts of urine, as in diabetes mellitus

pol-e-U-re-a

retention of urine

Accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate

staghorn calculus

A kidney stone that fills the renal pelvis and calyces to give a

"staghorn" appearance (Fig. 13-14)

uret_eroce le

A cystlike dilation of the ureter near its opening into the bladder.

u-RE-ter-o-sel

Usually results from a congenital narrowing of the ureteral opening

(Fig. 13-15).

urinary frequency

A need to urinate often without an increase in average output

urinary urgency

Sudden need to urinate

Symptoms and Conditions, continued

water intoxication

Excess intake or retention of water with decrease in sodium con

in-tok-si-KA-shun

centration. May result from excess drinking, excess ADH, or replacement of a large amount of body fluid with pure water. Causes an imbalance in the cellular environment with edema and other disturbances.

Wilms tumor

A malignant tumor of the kidney that usually appears in children before the age of 5 years

DIAGNOSIS

anion gap

A measure of electrolyte imbalance

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea. An increase in BUN indicates an increase in nitrogenous waste products in the blood and renal failure.

clean-catch specimen

A urine sample obtained after thorough cleansing of the urethral opening and collected in midstream to minimize the chance of contamination

cyst_ometrography_

A study of bladder function in which the bladder is filled with fluid

sis-to-me-TROG-ra-fe

or air and the pressure exerted by the bladder muscle at varying degrees of filling is measured. The tracing recorded is a cysto-metrogram.

protein electrophoresis

Laboratory study of the proteins in urine; used to diagnose multiple

(PEP)

myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, lymphoid tumor

urinometer

Device for measuring the specific gravity of urine

u-ri-NOM-e-ter

TREATMENT

d_iu_retic

A substance that increases the excretion of urine; pertaining to

di -u-RET-ik

diuresis

indwelling Foley catheter

A urinary tract catheter with a balloon at one end that prevents the catheter from leaving the bladder (see Fig. 13-5)

lithotr_ite_

Instrument for crushing a bladder stone

LITH-o-trit

Horseshoe Kidneys

FIGURE 13-12. Horseshoe kidney. The kidneys are fused at the poles. (Reprinted with permission from Rubin E, Farber JL. Pathology. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.)

Ventral Penis

FIGURE 13-13. Hypospadias. Ventral view of penis.

FIGURE 13-14. Staghorn calculus.

FIGURE 13-14. Staghorn calculus.

Staghorn Calculi Definition

FIGURE 13-15. Ureterocele. The ureter bulges into the bladder with resultant hydroureter and hydronephrosis.

Calculus With Hydroureter

ABBREVIATIONS

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

ARF

Acute renal failure

GU

Genitourinary

ATN

Acute tubular necrosis

IVP

Intravenous pyelography

BUN

Blood urea nitrogen

IVU

Intravenous urography

CAPD

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal

K

Potassium

dialysis

KUB

Kidney-ureter-bladder (radiography)

CCPD

Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis

Na

Sodium

CMG

Cystometrography; cystometrogram

PEP

Protein electrophoresis

CRF

Chronic renal failure

SG

Specific gravity

EPO

Erythropoietin

Tm

Maximal transport capacity

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

UA

Urinalysis

ESWL

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

UTI

Urinary tract infection

Urinary System, With Blood Vessels

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet.

Adrenal Gland And Diaphragm

Abdominal aorta Adrenal gland Common iliac artery Common iliac vein Diaphragm Inferior vena cava Prostate gland Renal artery Renal vein Right kidney Ureter Urethra

Urinary bladder

2.

9.

3.

10.

4.

11.

5.

12.

6.

13.

Longitudinal Section Through the Kidney

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet.

Ivp Pelvis Dilatation Children

Calyx

Pyramids of medulla Renal capsule Renal medulla Renal pelvis Renal cortex Ureter

Interior of the Urinary Bladder

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet.

Interior Male Urinary Bladder

External sphincter Smooth muscle

Internal sphincter Trigone

Openings of ureters Ureter

Prostate Urethra

Rugae Urogenital diaphragm

Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number:

1. albuminuria

2. pyuria

3. chromaturia

4. oliguria

5. cyturia a. abnormal color of urine b. pus in the urine c. elimination of small amounts of urine d. cells in the urine e. proteinuria

7. intrarenal b.

8. prerenal c.

9. renovascular d. 10. hepatorenal e.

11. nocturia a.

12. erythropoietin b.

13. uropenia c.

14. kaliuresis d.

_ 16. micturition a.

_ 19. catheterization d.

SUPPLEMENTARY TERMS

pertaining to the blood vessels of the kidneys within the kidneys pertaining to the liver and kidneys before or in front of the kidneys near the kidney excretion of potassium in the urine deficiency of urine excessive urination during the night enzyme that increases blood pressure hormone that stimulates red cell production congenital absence of the bladder urination introduction of a tube incision to remove a stone stagnation, as of urine presence of nitrogenous waste in the urine excessive thirst bed-wetting triangular area in the base of the bladder presence of glucose in the urine

_ 26. creatinine a. drug that increases urination

_ 27. diabetes insipidus b. a nitrogenous byproduct of metabolism

_ 28. epispadias c. inability to retain urine

_ 29. incontinence d. congenital misplacement of the ureteral opening

_ 30. diuretic e. condition caused by lack of ADH

Fill in the blanks:

31. A microscopic working unit of the kidney is called a(n) _

32. The cluster of capillaries within the glomerular capsule is the

33. The inner portion of the kidney is the _

34. Laboratory study of the urine is a(n) _

35. The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder is the

36. The main nitrogenous waste product in urine is _

37. A solid mold of the renal tubule found in the urine is a(n) _

Define each of the following words:

39. nephrotropic (nef-ro-TROP-ik) _

40. juxtaglomerular (juks-ta-glo-MER-u-lar) _

43. urethrostenosis (u-re-thro-ste-NO-sis) _

Word building. Write a word for each of the following definitions:

45. any disease of the kidney (nephr/o) _

46. radiograph of the bladder (cyst/o) and urethra _

47. incision of the bladder (cyst/o) _

48. inflammation of the urinary bladder _

49. inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney _

50. surgical removal of a kidney (nephr/o) _

51. plastic repair of a ureter and renal pelvis __

52. surgical creation of an opening between a ureter and _

the sigmoid colon

53. dilatation of the renal pelvis and calices _

Opposites. Write a word that has the opposite meaning of each of the following words:

54. hydration _

55. hypovolemia _

56. diuretic _

57. hypernatremia _

Adjectives. Write the adjective form of each of the following words:

62. diuresis _

64. nephrosis _

Plurals. Write the plural form of each of the following words:

67. glomerulus _

Write the meaning of each of the following abbreviations:

Word analysis. Define each of the following words, and give the meaning of the word parts in each. Use a dictionary if necessary.

77. cystometrography (sis-to-me-TROG-ra-fe) _

78. ureteroneocystostomy (u-re-ter-o-ne-o-sis-TOS-to-me) _

Case Study 13-1: Renal Calculi

A.A., a 48-year-old woman, was admitted to the in-patient unit from the ER with severe right flank pain unresponsive to analgesics. Her pain did not decrease with administration of 100 mg of IV meperidine. She had a 3-month history of chronic UTI. Six months ago she had been prescribed calcium supplements for low bone density. Her gynecologist warned her that calcium could be a problem for people who are "stone-formers." A.A. was unaware that she might be at risk. An IV urogram showed a right staghorn calculus. The diagnosis was further confirmed by a renal ultrasound. A renal flow scan showed normal perfusion and no obstruction. Kidney function was 37% on the right and 63% on the left. While the pain became intermittent, A.A. had no hematuria, dysuria, frequency, urgency, or nocturia. Uri-nalysis revealed no albumin, glucose, bacteria, or blood; there was evidence of cells, crystals, and casts.

A.A. was transferred to surgery for a cystoscopic ureteral laser lithotripsy, insertion of a right retrograde ureteral catheter, and right percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A ureteral calculus was fragmented with the pulsed-dye laser. Most of the staghorn was removed from the renal pelvis with no remaining stone in the renal calices. She was discharged 2 days later and ordered to strain her urine for the next week for evidence of stones.

Case Study 13-2: End-Stage Renal Disease

M.C., a 20-year-old part-time college student, has had chronic glomerulonephritis since age 7. He has been managed at home with CAPD for the last 16 months as he awaits a kidney transplant. His doctor advised him to go immediately to the ER when he complained of chest pain, shortness of breath, and oliguria. On admission, M.C. was placed on oxygen and given a panel of blood tests and an ECG to rule out an acute cardiac episode. His hemoglobin was 8.2 and hematocrit was 26%. He had bilateral lung rales. ABGs were: pH, 7.0; PaCO2, 28; Pao2, 50; Hco3, 21. His BUN, serum creatinine, and BUN/creatinine ratio were abnormally high. His ECG and liver enzyme studies were normal. His admission diagnosis was ESRD, fluid overload, and metabolic acidosis. He was typed and crossed for blood; tested for HIV, hepatitis B antigen, and sexually transmitted disease; and sent to hemodialysis. A bed was reserved for him on the transplant unit.

Case Study 13-3: Set-Up for Cystoscopy

Renovations had been completed recently in the new surgical suite, and J.O., a surgical technologist, set up the two new adjoining "cysto" rooms. Each room had a new cystoscopy bed with padded knee crutches for lithotomy position, a drainage drawer for irrigation solution collection, and radiology capability. The instrument storage carts were stocked with rigid and flexible cystoscopes, sheaths with obturators, and resectoscopes with assorted fulgurating loops, connectors, guide wires, laser fibers, and fiberoptic light cords. Sterile storage closets held assorted urethral and ureteral catheters, irrigation tubing and syringes, collection bags, biopsy needles and forceps, basic soft tissue instruments, and dressing supplies.

An electrosurgery machine was placed in each room. Cysto no. 1 had the CMG machine and uri-nometer. Cysto no. 2 had a Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet) and a liquid tunable pulsed-dye laser machine. Each room had a machine to collect and decontaminate the liquid waste, instead of the former floor drains.

Case Studies, continued

The substerile room between Cysto no. 1 and no. 2 had a steam sterilizer, a peracetic acid processor/ sterilizer, and glutaraldehyde soaking pans under a ventilation hood to high level-disinfect the instruments between cases. A warming closet contained blankets and sterile PSS, H2O, and glycine for bladder irrigation during the procedures. J.O. wished there was room left for an ESWL system.

CASE STUDY QUESTIONS

Multiple choice: Select the best answer and write the letter of your choice to the left of each number.

_ 1. The term perfusion means:

a. size b. shape c. passage of fluid d. surrounding tissue e. metabolism

_ 2. M.C.'s chronic glomerulonephritis means that he has had:

a. long-term kidney stones b. an acute bout of kidney infection c. short-term bladder inflammation d. a long-term kidney infection e. dysuria for 13 years

_ 3. Renal dialysis can be performed by shunting venous blood through a dialysis machine and returning the blood to the patient's arterial system. This procedure is called:

a. hemodialysis b. arterio/venous transplant c. CAPD

d. phlebotomy e. glomerular filtration rate

_ 4. A surgical endoscope that can enter and visualize the bladder is a(n)_, whereas a scope that cuts tissue is called a(n)_.

a. cystoscope, resectoscope b. resectoscope, fulgurating loop c. urinometer, obturator with sheath d. cystoscope, scissorscope e. urethrascope, ureteralscope

_ 5. A transurethral approach for examination or surgery always begins with inserting a catheter or scope:

a. through the ureter b. alongside of the urethra c. between the ureters d. through the urethra e. below the perineum

Case Studies, continued

Write a term from the case studies with each of the following meanings:

6. intravenous injection of contrast dye and radiographic study of the urinary tract

7. production of a reduced amount of urine _

8. getting up to go to the bathroom at night _

9. crushing a stone in the ureter with a laser _

10. kidney replacement _

11. surgical incision for removal of a stone _

Abbreviations. Define the following abbreviations:

19. ESWL

Chapter 13 Crossword Urinary System

Excretory System Exam Multiple Choices

ACROSS

DOWN

1.

Tube that carries urine from the kidney to the

2.

Kidney: combining form

bladder

3.

Organism often involved in urinary tract infections,

5.

Water; fluid: combining form

E.

8.

Cluster of capillaries in Bowman capsule

4.

Substance produced in response to renin that in-

10.

Few; scant: prefix

creases blood pressure

11.

Microscopic functional unit of the kidney

6.

Painful or difficult urination

13.

Drug that reduces blood pressure, inhibitor

7.

The fluid excreted by the kidneys

14.

Hormone that stimulates red cell production:

9.

Large or abnormally large: prefix

abbreviation

12.

Renal pelvis: combining form

15.

Pertaining to the kidney

16.

Calculus (stone): combining form

18.

Measure of the weight of a substance as

17.

Pus: root

compared to water: abbreviation

20.

Three: prefix

19.

Urinary bladder: combining form

21.

Maximum amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed: abbreviation

22.

Pituitary hormone that regulates water reabsorption: abbreviation

23.

Excessive urination at night

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Responses

  • Katja
    How can we get rid of calculus of renal cortex?
    8 years ago
  • ENSIO
    What is the medical term for urine with pus?
    8 years ago
  • leon
    What the term of blood vessel cavity?
    8 years ago
  • tammy
    How do i use urinalysis midstream catheter test?
    8 years ago
  • Milena
    Is there a name for urine in the peritoneal cavity?
    7 years ago
  • janina
    What is excretory system?
    7 years ago
  • Jana
    What is usually done in a cystoscopy?
    7 years ago
  • Severi
    What are the root words of the radiographic study of the urinary tract?
    3 years ago
  • Hanno
    What is cystoscopy in medical term?
    3 years ago
  • marko gerber
    What is the crushing a stone in the ureter with a laser medical term?
    3 years ago
  • Islay
    What is a bladder scope test?
    2 years ago
  • aki
    What is uropenia in medical term?
    2 years ago
  • fikru
    What is a scan medical terminology?
    1 year ago

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