Naming of Muscles

A muscle can be named by its location (near a bone, for example), by the direction of its fibers, or by its size, its shape, or its number of attachment points (heads), as indicated by the suffix -ceps. It may also be

Sole Foot Neuromuscular Junction

FIGURE 20-1. Neuromuscular junction. (A) The branched end of a motor neuron makes contact with the membrane of a muscle fiber (cell). (B) Enlarged view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

FIGURE 20-1. Neuromuscular junction. (A) The branched end of a motor neuron makes contact with the membrane of a muscle fiber (cell). (B) Enlarged view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

DISPLAY 20-1 Types of Movement Produced by Muscles

MOVEMENT

DEFINITION

EXAMPLE

flexion FLEK-shun

closing the angle at a joint

bending at the knee or elbow

extension eks-TEN-shun

opening the angle at a joint

straightening at the knee or elbow

abduction ab-DUK-shun

movement away from the midline of the body

outward movement of the arms at the shoulders

adduction a-DUK-shun

movement toward the midline of the body

return of lifted arms to the body

rotation ro-TA-shun

turning of a body part on its own axis

turning of the forearm from the elbow

circumduction ser-kum-DUK-shun

circular movement from a central point

describing a circle with an outstretched arm

pronation pro-NA-shun

turning downward

turning the palm of the hand downward

DISPLAY 20-1 Types of Movement Produced by Muscles, continued

MOVEMENT DEFINITION EXAMPLE

supination su-pin-A-shun

turning upward

turning the palm of the hand upward

eversion e-VER-zhun

turning outward

turning the sole of the foot outward

inversion in-VER-zhun

turning inward

turning the sole of the foot inward

dorsiflexion dor-si-FLEK-shun

bending backward

moving the foot so that the toes point upward, away from the sole of the foot

plantar flexion

bending the sole of the foot

pointing the toes downward

named for its action, adding the suffix -or to the root for the action. For example, a muscle that produces flexion at a joint is a flexor. Examine the muscle diagrams in Figures 20-3 and 20-4. See how many of these criteria you can find in the names of the muscles. Note that sometimes more than one criterion is used in the name.

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