Muscle Structure

Muscles are composed of individual cells, often referred to as fibers because they are so long and threadlike. These cells are held together in bundles by connective tissue (Fig. 20-5). Covering each muscle is a sheath of connective tissue or fascia. These supporting tissues merge to form the tendon that attaches the muscle to a bone.

FIGURE 20-2. Diagram of a muscle showing three attachments to bones—two origins and one insertion (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Biceps Brachii Muscle Origin Diagram

Orbicularis oculi

Temporalis

Sternocleidomastoid Deltoid Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Biceps brachii Brachioradialis Flexor carpi Extensor carpi

Abdominal aponeurosis

Adductors of thigh

Rectus femoris

Peroneus longus

Tibialis anterior

Orbicularis oris

Trapezius

Orbicularis oculi

Temporalis

Orbicularis oris

Trapezius

Adductors of thigh

Rectus femoris

Peroneus longus

Tibialis anterior

Gastrocnemius Anterior View

External oblique

Intercostals

Internal oblique Rectus abdominis

Sartorius

Vastus lateralis

Quadriceps femoris

Gastrocnemius

FIGURE 20-3. Superficial muscles, anterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

External oblique

Intercostals

Internal oblique Rectus abdominis

Sartorius

Vastus lateralis

Quadriceps femoris

Gastrocnemius

FIGURE 20-3. Superficial muscles, anterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Teres minor Teres major

Latissimus dorsi

Lumbodorsal fascia

Gluteus maximus Iliotibial band

Hamstring group:

Biceps femoris

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Gastrocnemius

Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Deltoid

Triceps brachii

Olecranon (elbow)

Teres minor Teres major

Latissimus dorsi

Olecranon Muscle Attachments

Olecranon (elbow)

Peroneus longus

Lumbodorsal fascia

Gluteus maximus Iliotibial band

Hamstring group:

Biceps femoris

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Gastrocnemius

Achilles tendon

FIGURE 20-4. Superficial muscles, posterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Peroneus longus

Achilles tendon

FIGURE 20-4. Superficial muscles, posterior view. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Structure Muscles Human Body

FIGURE 20-5. Structure of a skeletal muscle showing connective tissue coverings. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

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