Key Terms

ATP The energy compound of the cell; stores energy needed for cell activities.

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate (a-DEN-o-sen tri-FOS-fat).

carbohydrate The category of organic compounds that includes sugars and starches kar-bo-HI-drat

FIGURE 4-5. Organs of the digestive tract. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

FIGURE 4-5. Organs of the digestive tract. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Medical Words

cell

The basic structural and functional unit of the living organism; a microscopic

sel

unit that combines with other cells to form tissues (root cyt/o)

chromosome

A threadlike body in the nucleus of a cell that contains genetic information

KRO-mO-sOm

cytoplasm

The fluid that fills a cell and holds the organelles

SI-to-plazm

DNA

The genetic compound of the cell; makes up the genes. DNA stands for de

oxyribonucleic (dë-ok-së-ri-bO-nU-KLE-ik) acid.

enzyme

An organic substance that speeds the rate of metabolic reactions

EN-zi m

gene

A hereditary unit composed of DNA and combined with other genes to

jen

form the chromosomes

glucose

A simple sugar that circulates in the blood; the main energy source for me-

GLU-kos

tabolism (roots gluc/o, glyc/o)

homeostasis

A steady state; a condition of internal stability and constancy

ho-me-o-STA-sis

lipid

A category of organic compounds that includes fats (root lip/o)

LIP-id

metabolism

The sum of all the physical and chemical reactions that occur within an organ-

me-TA-bo-lizm

ism

mitosis

Cell division

mi -TO-sis

mucus

A thick fluid secreted by cells in membranes and glands that lubricates and

MU-kus

protects tissues (roots muc/o, myx/o); the adjective is mucous

nucleus

The control center of the cell; directs all cell activities based on the infor-

NU-kle-us

mation contained in its chromosomes (roots nucle/o, kary/o)

protein

A category of organic compounds that includes structural materials, en-

PRO-ten

zymes, and some hormones

RNA

An organic compound involved in the mcnufacture of proteins within cells. RNA stands for ribonucleic (ri-bo-nu-KLE-ik) acid.

tissue_

A group of cells that acts together for a specific purpose (root hist/o, histi/o)

TISH-u

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