Key Terms

NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

agranulocytes White blood cells that do not have visible granules in their cytoplasm.

A-gran-u-lo-s i tz Agranulocytes include lymphocytes and monocytes.

agranulocytes White blood cells that do not have visible granules in their cytoplasm.

A-gran-u-lo-s i tz Agranulocytes include lymphocytes and monocytes.

albumin

A simple protein found in blood plasma

al-BU-min

antibody

A protein produced in response to, and interacting specifically with, an

AN-ti-bod-e

antigen

antigen

A substance that induces the formation of antibodies

AN-ti-jen

B cell

A lymphocyte that matures in lymphoid tissue and is active in producing

antibodies; B lymphocyte (LIM-fo-si t)

band cell

An immature neutrophil with a nucleus in the shape of a band. Also called

a stab or staff cell. Band cell counts are used to trace infections and other

diseases (Fig. 10-6).

blood

The fluid that circulates in the cardiovascular system (root hem/o, hemat/o)

coagulation

Blood clotting

ko-ag-u-LA-shun

cross-matching

Testing the compatibility of donor and recipient blood in preparation for a

transfusion. Donor red cells are mixed with recipient serum, and red cells

of the recipient are mixed with donor serum to look for an immunologic

reaction. Similar tests are done on tissues before transplantation.

electrolyte

A substance that separates into charged particles (ions) in solution; a salt.

1-LEK-tro-li t

Term also applied to ions in body fluids.

erythrocy_te_

A red blood cell (root erythr/o, erythrocyt/o)

e-RITH-ro-sit

erythro_poietin (EPO)

A hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell produc-

e-rith-ro-POY-e-tin

tion in the bone marrow. This hormone is now made by genetic engineer-

ing for clinical use.

fibrin

The protein that forms a clot in the process of blood coagulation

Fl-brin

fibrinogen

The inactive precursor of fibrin

fi-BRIN-o-jen

formed elements

The cellular components of blood

granulo_cy_tes_

White blood cells that have visible granules in their cytoplasm. Granulo-

GRAN-u-lo-sTtz

cytes include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils.

hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb)

The iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen

HE-mo -glo -bin

hemo_stasis

The stoppage of bleeding

he-mo-STA-sis

Normal Structure and Function, continued

immunity

The state of being protected against a specific disease (root immun/o)

immunoglobulin (Ig)

An antibody. Immunoglobulins fall into five classes, each abbreviated

im-u-no-GLOB-u-lin

with a capital letter: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE.

leukocyte

A white blood cell (root leuk/o, leukocyt/o)

LU-ko-si t

lymphocyte

A lymphatic cell; a type of agranular leukocyte (root lymph/o, lympho-

LIM-fo-si t

cyt/o)

macrophage

A phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte; usually located within

MAK-ro-faj

the tissues. Macrophages process antigens for T cells.

phagocytosis

The engulfing of foreign material by white blood cells

fag-o-si -TO-sis

plasma

The liquid portion of the blood

PLAZ-ma

plasma cell

A cell that is formed from a B cell and that produces antibodies

pla_telet

A formed element of the blood that is active in hemostasis; a throm-

PLAT-let

bocyte (root thrombocyt/o)

se_rum

The fraction of the plasma that remains after blood coagulation; it is

SER-um

the equivalent of plasma without its clotting factors (plural sera,

serums)

T cell

A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus gland and attacks foreign

cells directly; T lymphocyte

thrombocyte

A blood platelet (root thrombocyt/o)

THROM-bo-sit

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