Define Distal Digestive Tract

NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

anus The distal opening of the digestive tract (root an/o)

A-nus anus The distal opening of the digestive tract (root an/o)

A-nus

appendix

An appendage; usually means the narrow tube attached to the cecum, the ver

a-PEN-diks

miform (wormlike) appendix

bile

The fluid secreted by the liver that aids in the digestion and absorption of fats

bil

(roots chol/e, bili)

cecum

A blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine (root cec/o)

SE-kum

colon

The major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rec-

KO-lon

tum and is formed by ascending, transverse, and descending portions (root

col/o, colon/o)

common bile

The duct that carries bile into the duodenum; formed by the union of the

duct

cystic duct and the common hepatic duct (root choledoch/o)

duodenum

The first portion of the small intestine (root duoden/o)

du-o-DE-num

Normal Structure and Function, continued esophagus The muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach. The e-SOF-a-gus opening of the esophagus into the stomach is controlled by the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) (root esphag/o).

feces The waste material eliminated from the intestine (adjective, fecal); stool

FE-sez gallbladder A sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile (root cholecyst/o)

hepatic portal A special pathway of the circulation that brings blood directly from the ab system dominal organs to the liver for processing (also called simply the portal system). The vessel that enters the liver is the hepatic portal vein (portal vein).

ileum The terminal portion of the small intestine (root ile/o)

IL-e-um intestine in-TES-tin jejunum je-JU-num liver

LIV-er

masticati_on mas-ti-KA-shun

pancrea_s

A large, elongated gland behind the stomach. It produces hormones that regu-

PAN-kre-as

late sugar metabolism and also produces digestive enzymes (root pancreat/o).

palate

The roof of the mouth; the partition between the mouth and nasal cavity;

PAL-at

consists of an anterior portion formed by bone, the hard palate, and a

posterior portion formed of tissue, the soft palate

(root palat/o)

peristalsis

Wavelike contractions of the walls of an organ

per-i-STAL-sis

p_ylorus

The distal opening of the stomach into the duodenum. The opening is con-

pi -LOR-us

trolled by a ring of muscle, the pyloric sphincter (root pylor/o).

rectum

The distal portion of the large intestine. It stores and eliminates undigested

REK-tum

waste (root rect/o, proct/o).

saliva

The clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains

sa-LI-va

an enzyme that digests starch. It is produced by three pairs of glands: the

parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands (see Fig. 12-1) (root sial/o).

stomach

A muscular saclike organ below the diaphragm that stores food and secretes

STUM-ak

juices that digest proteins (root gastr/o)

villi_

Tiny projections in the lining of the small intestine that absorb digested foods

VIL-I

into the circulation (singular, villus)

The portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus. It consists of the small intestine and large intestine. It functions in digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste (root enter/o).

The middle portion of the small intestine (root jejun/o)

The large gland in the upper right part of the abdomen. In addition to many other functions, it secretes bile for digestion of fats (root hepat/o).

Chewing

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