Key Terms

NORMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

adenoids Lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx; the pharyngeal tonsils

AD-e-noyds adenoids Lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx; the pharyngeal tonsils

AD-e-noyds

alveoli

The tiny air sacs in the lungs through which gases are exchanged between the

al-VE-o-li

atmosphere and the blood in respiration (singular, alveolus). An alveolus, in

general, is a small hollow or cavity, and the term is also used to describe the

bony socket for a tooth.

bronchiole

One of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes (root bronchiol)

BRONG-ke-Ol

bronchus

One of the larger air passageways in the lungs. The bronchi begin as two

BRONG-kus

branches of the trachea and then subdivide within the lungs (plural, bronchi)

(root bronch).

carbon dioxide

A gas produced by energy metabolism in cells and eliminated through the

(CO2)

lungs

carbonic acid

An acid formed by carbon dioxide when it dissolves in water; H2CO3

kar-BON-ik

compliance

A measure of how easily the lungs expand under pressure. Compliance is

kom-PLI-ans

reduced in many types of respiratory disorders.

diaphragm

The dome-shaped muscle under the lungs that flattens during inspiration

DI-a-fram

(root phren/o)

epiglottis

A leaf-shaped cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent

ep-i-GLOT-is

food from entering the trachea

expectoration

The act of coughing up material from the respiratory tract; also the material

ek-spek-to-RA-shun

thus released; sputum

expiration

The act of breathing out or expelling air from the lungs; exhalation

ek-spi-RA-shun

glottis

The opening between the vocal cords

GLOT-is

he mo glob in

The iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen

HE-mo-glo-bin

inspirat_ion

The act of drawing air into the lungs; inhalation

in-spi-RA-shun

larynx

The enlarged upper end of the trachea that contains the vocal cords (root

LAR-inks

laryng/o)

lung

A cone-shaped spongy organ of respiration contained within the thorax (roots

pneum, pulm)

m edi astinu m

The space between the lungs together with the organs contained in this space

me-de-as-TI-num

no se

The organ of the face used for breathing and for housing receptors for the

nOz

sense of smell; includes an external portion and an internal nasal cavity (roots

nas/o, rhin/o)

Normal Structure and Function, continued

oxygen (O2)

The gas needed by cells to release energy from food in metabolism

OK-si-jen

palatine tonsils

The paired masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the orophar

PAL-a-ti n

ynx; usually meant when the term tonsils is used alone

pharynx

The throat; a common passageway for food entering the esophagus and air

FAR-inks

entering the larynx (root pharyng/o)

phrenic nerve

The nerve that activates the diaphragm (root phrenic/o)

FREN-ik

ple_ura

A double-layered membrane that covers the lungs (visceral pleura) and lines

PLUR-a

the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura) (root pleur/o)

pleural space

The thin, fluid-filled space between the two layers of the pleura; pleural cavity

s_inus

A cavity or channel; the paranasal sinuses are located near the nose and drain

Sl-nus

into the nasal cavity

sputum

The substance released by coughing or clearing the throat. It may contain a

SPU-tum

variety of material from the respiratory tract.

surfactant

A substance that decreases surface tension within the alveoli and eases expan-

sur-FAK-tant

sion of the lungs

trac_he_a

The air passageway that extends from the larynx to the bronchi (root trache/o)

TRA-ke-a

turbinate bones

The bony projections in the nasal cavity that contain receptors for the sense of

TUR-bi-nat

smell. Also called conchae (KON-ke).

ventilation

The movement of air into and out of the lungs

vo_cal cords

Membranous folds on either side of the larynx that are important in speech

VO-kal

production. Also called vocal folds.

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