Key Terms

acute

Sudden, severe; having a short course

a-KUT

benign

Not recurrent or malignant; favorable for recovery; describing tumors that do

be-NIN

not spread

carcinoma

A malignant neoplasm composed of epithelial cells (from Greek root carcino,

kar-si-NO-ma

meaning "crab") (adjective, carcinomatous)

chronic

Of long duration; progressing slowly

KRON-ik

cyst

A filled sac or pouch that is usually abnormal (see Fig. 6-4).

sist

Used as a root meaning a normal bladder or sac, such as the urinary bladder

or gallbladder (root cysi/o, cysi/i).

etiology

The cause of a disease

~e-ie-OL-o-ie

Gram stain

A laboratory staining procedure that divides bacteria into two groups: gram-

positive, which stain blue, and gram-negative, which stain red (see Fig. 6-1)

hernia_

Protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening; a rupture

HER-ne-a

(Fig. 6-5)

inflammation

A localized response to tissue injury characterized by heat, pain, redness, and

in-fla-MA-shun

swelling

lesion

A distinct area of damaged tissue; an injury or wound

LE-zhun

malignant

Growing worse; harmful; tending to cause death; describing tumors that

ma-LIG-nant

spread (metastasize)

metastasize

To spread from one part of the body to another; characteristic of cancer.

me-TAS-ta-siz

The noun is metastasis (me-TAS-ta-sis).

necrosis

Death of tissue

ne-KRO-sis

neoplasm

An abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissue, namely, a tumor; may be be

NE-o-plazm

nign or malignant (root onc/o, suffix -oma)

phagocytosis

The ingestion of organisms, such as invading bacteria or small particles of

fag-o-si -TO-sis

waste material by a cell; ingested material is then destroyed by the phagocytic

cell, or phagocyte (root phag/o means "to eat")

parasite_

An organism that grows on or in another organism (the host), causing damage

PAR-a-sJt

to it

pathog_en

An organism capable of causing disease (root path/o)

PATH-o-jen

pro_lapse

A dropping or downward displacement of an organ or part; ptosis

PRO-laps

pus

A product of inflammation consisting of fluid and white blood cells (root py/o)

sarcoma

A malignant neoplasm arising from connective tissue (from Greek root sarco,

sar-KO-ma

meaning "flesh") (adjective, sarcomatous)

sepsis

The presence of harmful microorganisms or their toxins in the blood or other

SEP-sis

tissues (adjective, septic)

toxin

A poison (adjective, toxic; roots tox/o, toxic/o)

TOKS-in

trauma

A physical or psychological wound or injury

TRAW-ma

See also Display 6-1 on infectious diseases.

Hiatus Hernia Cardis

FIGURE 6-5. (A) Normal. (B) Hiatal hernia. The stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity, raising the level of the junction between the esophagus and the stomach. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

FIGURE 6-5. (A) Normal. (B) Hiatal hernia. The stomach protrudes through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity, raising the level of the junction between the esophagus and the stomach. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Word Parts Pertaining to Disease

TABLE 6-1

Roots for Disease

ROOT

MEANING

EXAMPLE

DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

alg/o, algi/o, algesi/o

pain

algesia al-JE-ze-a

condition of having pain

carcin/o

cancer, carcinoma

carcinogen kar-SIN-o-jen

substance that produces cancer

cyst/o, cyst/1

filled sac or pouch, cyst, bladder

cystic SIS-tik

pertaining to or having cysts

lith

calculus, stone

lithia sis lith-J-a-sis

stone formation

onc/o

tumor

oncogene ON-ko-jen

gene that causes a tumor

path/o

disease

pathog en PATH-o-jen

organism that produces disease

py/o

pus

pyocyst PT-o-sist

a sac or cyst containing pus

pyr/o, pyret/o

fever, fire

pyretic pi-RET-ik

pertaining to fever

scler/o

hard

scleros i s skle-RO-sis

hardening of tissue

tox/o, toxic/o

poison

exotoxin eks-o-TOK-sin

toxin secreted by bacterial cells

Identify and define the root in each of the following words:

Root

Meaning of Root

2. intoxicate in-TOK-si-kat

4. pathology pa-THOL-o-je

Fill in the blanks:

5. Carcinolysis (kar-sin-OL-i-sis) is the destruction (-lysis) of a(n)

in the urinary tract (ur/o).

7. Oncology (on-KOL-o-je) is the study and treatment of

8. The term pathogenic means producing _

9. Pyorrhea (pi-o-RE-a) is the discharge (-rhea) of

10. Arteriosclerosis (ar-te-re-o-skle-RO-sis) is a(n) _

of the arteries.

12. An algesimeter (al-je-SIM-e-ter) is used to measure sensitivity to

TABLE 6-2 Prefixes for Disease

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLE

DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

brady-

slow

bradypnea brad-ip-NE-a

slow breathing (-pnea)

dys-

abnormal, painful, difficult

dyspla sia dis-PLA-je-a

abnormal development of tissue

mal-

bad, poor

maladaptive mal-a-DAP-tiv

poorly suited to a specific use or to the environment

pachy-

thick

pachye mia pak-e-E-me-a

thickness of the blood (-emia)

tachy-

rapid

tachycardia tak-i-KAR-de-a

rapid heart (cardi) rate

xero-

dry

xeros i s ze-RO-sis

dryness of the skin or membranes

Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number:

1.

dystrophy (DIS-trO-fe)

a.

dryness of the skin

2.

tachypnea (tak-ip-NE-a)

b.

rapid breathing

3.

bradycardia (brad-e-KAR-de-a)

c.

difficulty in swallowing

4.

xeroderma (zë-râ-DER-ma)

d.

slow heart rate

5.

dysphagia (dis-FA-je-a)

e.

poor nourishment of tissue

Identify and define the prefix in each of the following words:

Prefix

6. malnutrition (mal-nu-TRISH-un) _

Identify and define the prefix in each of the following words:

Prefix

6. malnutrition (mal-nu-TRISH-un) _

Meaning of Prefix

TABLE 6-3 Suffixes for Disease

SUFFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLE

DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

-algia, -algesia

pain

myalgia mi -AL-je-a

pain in a muscle (my/o)

-cele

hernia, localized dilation

hydrocele? Hl-dro-sel

localized dilation containing fluid

-clasis, -clasia

breaking

osteoclasis os-te-OK-la-sis

breaking of a bone (oste/o)

-itis

inflammation

meningitis men-in-jT-tis

inflammation of the membranes around the brain (meninges)

-megaly

enlargement

hepatomegaly hep-a-to-MEG-a-le

enlargement of the liver (hepat/o)

-odynia

pain

urodynia u-ro-DIN-e-a

pain on urination (ur/o)

-oma*

tumor

blastoma blas-TO-ma

tumor of immature cells

-pathy

any disease of

cardiopathy kar-de-OP-a-the

any disease of the heart (cardi/o)

-rhage+, -rhagia+

bursting forth, profuse flow, hemorrhage

hemorrhage HEM-or-ij

profuse flow of blood

-rhea+

flow, discharge

mucorrhea mU-ko-re-a

discharge of mucus

-rhexis+

rupture

amniorrhexis am-ne-o-REK-sis

rupture of the amniotic sac (bag of waters)

-schisis

fissure, splitting

retinoschisis ret-i-NOS-ki-sis

splitting of the retina of the eye

*Plural: -omas, -omata.

tRemember to double the r when adding this suffix to a root.

the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number:

1.

thoracoschisis (tho-ra-KOS-ki-sis)

a.

breaking of a nucleus

2.

adipocele (AD-i-po-sel)

b.

congenital fissure of the chest

3.

karyoclasis (kar-e-OK-la-sis)

c.

tumor of pigmented cells

4.

lipoma (lip-O-ma)

d.

hernia containing fat

5.

melanoma (mel-a-NO-ma)

e.

fatty tumor

6.

hemorrhagic (hem-or-AJ-ik)

a.

rupture of the liver

7.

hepatorrhexis (hep-a-to-REK-sis)

b.

substance that counteracts fever

B.

analgesia (an-al-JE-ze-a)

c.

absence of pain

9.

antipyretic (an-ti-pi -RET-ik)

d.

pain in a gland

1O.

adenodynia (ad-e-no-DIN-e-a)

e.

pertaining to a profuse flow of blood

enlargement of the stomach

The root gastr/o means "stomach." Define the following terms:

11. gastromegaly (gas-tro-MEG-a-le)

13. gastropathy (gas-TROP-a-the) _

14. gastrocele (GAS-tro-sel) _

Some words pertaining to disease are used as suffixes in compound words. As previously noted, the term suffix is used in this book to mean any word part that consistently appears at the end of words. This may be a simple suffix (such as -y, -ia, -ic), a word, or a root-suffix combination (such as -megaly, -rhagia, -pathy).

The words toxic, toxin, and sclerosis are also used as suffixes in compound words. The words carcinoma and sarcoma are used as suffixes to indicate malignant tumors, as in adenocarcinoma and fibrosarcoma.

TABLE 6-4 Words for Disease Used as Suffixes

WORD

MEANING

EXAMPLE

DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

dilation*, dilatation*

expansion, widening

vaso_dila_tio_n vas-o-di-LA-shun

widening of blood vessels (vas/o)

ectasia, ectasis

dilation

bronchiectasis brong-ke-EK-ta-sis

chronic dilation of a bronchus (bronchi/o)

edema

accumulation of fluid, swelling (Fig. 6-6)

lymphedema lim-fe-DE-ma

swelling of tissues as a result of lymphatic blockage

lysis*

separation, loosening, dissolving, destruction

dialysis dl-AL-i-sis

separation of substances by passage through a membrane

malacia

softening

splenomalacia spl e-no-ma-LA-she-a

softening of the spleen (splen/o)

TABLE 6-4 Words for Disease Used as Suffixes, continued

WORD

MEANING

EXAMPLE

DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

necrosis

death of

oste_on_ecrosis _ os-te-O-ne-KRO-sis

death of bone tissue (oste/o)

ptosis

dropping, downward displacement, prolapse

blepharoptosis blef-e-rop-TO-sis

drooping of the eyelid (blephar/o; Fig. 6-7)

spasm

sudden contraction, cramp

bronchospasm BRONG-kO-spazm

spasm of a bronchus (bronch/o)

stasis*

suppression, stoppage

menostasis men-OS-ta-sis

suppression of menstrual (men/o) flow

stenosis

narrowing, constriction

arteriostenosis ar-ter-e-0-ste-NO-sis

narrowing of an artery

*May also refer to treatment.

FIGURE 6-6. Edema of the foot. (Reprinted with permission from Bickley LS. Bate's Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. 8th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003.)

FIGURE 6-7. Blepharoptosis (drooping of the eyelid).

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Responses

  • Azzeza
    What does the word root "sin(o)" medical mean?
    8 years ago
  • jonatan
    Where is hiatal hernia in human body?
    8 years ago
  • marigold
    What is the name of the membrane between the stomach and esophagus?
    7 years ago
  • Lleyton
    Which suffix means drooping?
    2 years ago

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