Key Clinical Terms

Type 2 Diabetes Defeated

Diabetes Causes and Possible Treatments

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acromegaly Overgrowth of bone and soft tissue, especially in the hands, feet, and face, ak-ro-MEG-a-le caused by an excess of growth hormone in an adult. The name comes from acro meaning "extremity" and megal/o meaning "enlargement."

acromegaly Overgrowth of bone and soft tissue, especially in the hands, feet, and face, ak-ro-MEG-a-le caused by an excess of growth hormone in an adult. The name comes from acro meaning "extremity" and megal/o meaning "enlargement."

Addison disease

A disease resulting from deficiency of adrenocortical hormones. It is

marked by darkening of the skin, weakness, and alterations in salt and

water balance.


A neoplasm of a gland



A condition caused by congenital lack of thyroid secretion and marked


by arrested physical and mental development; formerly called cre

tinism (KRE-tin-izm)

Cushing disease

Overactivity of the adrenal cortex resulting from excess production of

ACTH by the pituitary

Cushing syndrome

A condition resulting from an excess of hormones from the adrenal

cortex. It is associated with obesity, weakness, hyperglycemia, hyper-

tension, and hirsutism (excess hair growth).

d_iabete_s i_nsipidus

A disorder caused by insufficient release of ADH from the posterior pi-

di -a-BE-tez in-SIP-i-dus

tuitary. It results in excessive thirst and production of large amounts of

very dilute urine. The word insipidus means "tasteless," referring to the

dilution of the urine.

diabetes mellitus


A disorder of glucose metabolism caused by deficiency of insulin production or failure of the tissues to respond to insulin. Type 1 is juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM); type 2 is adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The word mellitus comes from the Latin root for honey, referring to the sugar content of the urine.

exophthalmos ek-sof-THAL-mos

Protrusion of the eyeballs as seen in Graves disease



Overgrowth caused by an excess of growth hormone from the pituitary during childhood; also called giantism

gl_yco suri a gli -ko-SU-re-a

Excess sugar in the urine



Enlargement of the thyroid gland. May be toxic or nontoxic. Simple (nontoxic) goiter is caused by iodine deficiency.

Graves disease

An autoimmune disease resulting in hyperthyroidism. A prominent symptom is exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeballs). Also called exophthalmic goiter.

h_ypergly cemia hi -per-gli -SE-me-a

Excess glucose in the blood

hy po glyc em ia HI -po-gli -SE-me-a

Abnormally low level of glucose in the blood

insulin shock

A condition resulting from an overdose of insulin, causing hypo-glycemia

ketoacidosis ke-to-as-i-DO-sis

Acidosis (increased acidity of body fluids) caused by an excess of ketone bodies, as in diabetes mellitus; diabetic acidosis

metabolic syndrome

A state of hyperglycemia caused by cellular resistance to insulin, as seen in type 2 diabetes, in association with other metabolic disorders; syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome

myxedem a miks-e-DE-ma

A condition caused by hypothyroidism in an adult. There is dry, waxy swelling most notable in the face.

panhypo pituita_rism pan-hi -po -pi-TU-i-ta-rism

Underactivity of the entire pituitary gland



Irritability and spasms of muscles; may be caused by low blood calcium and other factors

Supplementary Terms


pineal gland


A small gland in the brain (see Fig. 16-1). Its function in humans is not clear, but it seems to regulate behavior and sexual development in response to environmental light.

sella turcica

SEL-a TUR-si-ka

A saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone that contains the pituitary gland (literally means "Turkish saddle")

sphaenoid bone


A bone at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland


adreanogaenital syndrome ad-re-no-JEN-i-tal

Condition caused by overproduction of androgens from the adrenal cortex resulting in masculinization; may be congenital or acquired, usually as a result of an adrenal tumor

Conn syndrome

Hyperaldosteronism caused by an adrenal tumor

craniopharyngioma kra-ne-o-far-in-je-O-ma

A tumor of the pituitary gland

Hashimoto disease

A chronic thyroiditis of autoimmune origin

ketosis ke-TO-sis

Accumulation of ketone bodies, such as acetone, in the body. Usually results from deficiency or faulty metabolism of carbohydrates, as in cases of diabetes mellitus and starvation.

multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)

A hereditary disorder that causes tumors in several endocrine glands; classified according to the combination of glands involved

phieochromocytoma fe-ö-krö-mö-si -TO-ma

A usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla or other structures containing chromaffin cells (cells that stain with chromium salts). The tumor causes increased production of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

pituatary apoplexy


Sudden massive hemorrhage and degeneration of the pituitary gland associated with a pituitary tumor. Common symptoms include severe headache, visual problems, and loss of consciousness.

Simmonds disease

Hypofunction of the anterior pituitary (panhypopituitarism), usually because of an infarction; pituitary cachexia

thyroid storm

A sudden onset of the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis occurring in patients with hyperthyroidism who are untreated or poorly treated. May be brought on by illness or trauma. Also called thyroid crisis.

thyrotoxicosis thi -rö-tok-si-KO-sis

Condition resulting from overactivity of the thyroid gland. Symptoms include anxiety, irritability, weight loss, and sweating. The main example of thyrotoxicosis is Graves disease.

von Recklinghausen disease

Degeneration of bone caused by excess production of hormone from the parathyroid glands. Also called Recklinghausen disease of bone.


fasting plasma Measurement of glucose in the blood after a fast of at least 8 hours. A

glucose (FPG) reading equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL indicates diabetes. Also called fasting blood glucose (FBG) or fasting blood sugar (FBS).

free thyroxine Calculation based on the amount of T4 present and T3 uptake that is index (FTI, T7) used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction glycosylated A test that measures the binding of glucose to hemoglobin during the hemoglobin (HbA1c) test lifespan of a red blood cell. It reflects the average blood glucose level gli-KO-si-la-ted over 2 to 3 months and is useful in evaluating long-term therapy for diabetes mellitus. Also called glycohemoglobin test.

oral glucose tolerance Measurement of glucose levels in blood plasma after administration test (OGTT) of a challenge dose of glucose to a fasting patient. Used to measure patient's ability to metabolize glucose. A value equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL in the 2-hour sample indicates diabetes.

radioactive iodine uptake A test that measures thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine as an evalu-test (RAIU) ation of thyroid function radioimmunoassay (RIA) A method of measuring very small amounts of a substance, especially hormones, in blood plasma using radioactively labeled hormones and specific antibodies thyroid scan Visualization of the thyroid gland after administration of radioactive iodine thyroxine-binding Test that measures the main protein that binds T4 in the blood globulin (TBG) test transsphenoidal Removal of a pituitary tumor through the sphenoid sinus (space in adenom_ectomy the sphenoid bone).

trans-sfe-NOY-fal ad-e-no-MEK-to-me

Also used to diagnose endocrine disorders are imaging techniques, other measurements of hormones or their metabolites in plasma and urine, and studies involving hormone stimulation or suppression.



Adrenocorticotropic hormone


Impaired fasting blood glucose


Antidiuretic hormone


Impaired glucose tolerance


Blood sugar


Multiple endocrine neoplasia


Continuous subcutaneous insulin


Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus



Neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)


Diabetes mellitus


Oral glucose tolerance test


Fasting blood glucose


Radioactive iodine uptake


Fasting blood sugar




Fasting plasma glucose


Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic


Free thyroxine index

hormone (secretion)


Gestational diabetes mellitus




Growth hormone


Thyroxine; tetraiodothyronine


Hemoglobin A1c; glycohemoglobin;


Free thyroxine index

glycosylated hemoglobin


Thyroxine-binding globulin


Iodine 131 (radioactive iodine)


Thyroid-stimulating hormone


Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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