Key Clinical Terms

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DISORDERS

W

ankylosing spondylitis

A chronic, progressive inflammatory disease involving the joints of

ang-ki-LO-sing

the spine and surrounding soft tissue, most common in young males;

spon-di-LI-tis

also called rheumatoid spondylitis

ankylosi s

Immobility and fixation of a joint

ang-ki-LO-sis

arthriti s

Inflammation of a joint

ar-THRI-tis

chondr osarcoma

A malignant tumor of cartilage

kon-dro-sar-KO-ma

degenerative joint

Osteoarthritis (see below)

disease (DJD)

fracture

A break in a bone. In a closed or simple fracture, the broken bone

does not penetrate the skin; in an open fracture, there is an accom-

panying wound in the skin.

gout

A form of acute arthritis, usually beginning in the knee or foot,

gowt

caused by deposit of uric acid salts in the joints

herniated disk

Protrusion of the center (nucleus pulposus) of an intervertebral disk

into the spinal canal; ruptured or "slipped" disk

osteoarthritis ( OA)

Progressive deterioration of joint cartilage with growth of new bone

os-te-o -ar-THRI-tis

and soft tissue in and around the joint; the most common form of

arthritis; results from wear and tear, injury, or disease; also called

degenerative joint disease (DJD)

osteogenic sarcoma

A malignant bone tumor; osteosarcoma

os-te-o-JEN-ik

osteomalacia

A softening and weakening of the bones due to vitamin D deficiency

os-te-o-ma-LA-she-a

or other disease

osteomyelitis

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by infection, usually

os-te-o-mi -e-LI-tis

bacterial

osteoporosis

A condition characterized by reduction in bone density, most com-

os-te-o-po-RO-sis

mon in white women past menopause; causative factors include, diet,

activity, and estrogen levels

Paget disease

Skeletal disease of the elderly characterized by thickening and distor-

PAJ-et

tion of bones with bowing of long bones; osteitis deformans

Pott disease

Inflammation of the vertebrae, usually caused by tuberculosis

rh eumatoid arthritis

A chronic autoimmune disease of unknown origin resulting in

RU-ma-toyd

inflammation of peripheral joints and related structures; more com-

mon in women than in men

Disorders, continued

rheumatoid factor

A group of antibodies found in the blood in cases of rheumatoid

arthritis and other systemic diseases

rickets

Faulty bone formation in children usually caused by a deficiency of

RIK-ets

vitamin D

s_ciatica

Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, usually

si -AT-i-ka

related to irritation of a spinal nerve root

TREATMENT

alkaline phosphatase

An enzyme needed in the formation of bone; serum activity of this

AL-ka-lin FOS-fa-tas

enzyme is useful in diagnosis

anti-inflammatory agent

Drug that reduces inflammation; includes steroids, such as cortisone,

and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

discectom_y _

Surgical removal of a herniated intervertebral disk

dis-KEK-to -me

nonsteroidal

Drug that reduces inflammation but is not a steroid; examples in-

anti-inflammatory

clude aspirin and ibuprofen and other inhibitors of prostaglandins,

drug (NSAID)

naturally produced substances that promote inflammation

ortho_ped_ics

The study and treatment of disorders of the skeleton, muscles, and

or-tho-PE-diks

associated structures; literally "straight" (ortho) "child" (ped); also

spelled orthopaedics

reduction of a fracture

Return of a fractured bone to a normal position; may be closed (not

requiring surgery) or open (requiring surgery)

traction

The process of drawing or pulling, such as traction of the head in the

TRAK-shun

treatment of injuries to the cervical vertebrae

rSEP-tum

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