Exercise

Identify and define the prefix in each of the following words:

Prefix Meaning of Prefix

1. amorphous (without form) (root morph/o) a- not, without, lack of, absence (a-MOR-fus)

5. contralateral _ _

8. noncontributory _ _

Add a prefix to form the negative of each of the following words:

9. coordinated uncoordinated

10. adequate

11. infect

12. permeable (capable of being penetrated)

13. congestant

14. compatible _

BOX 3-1 Prefix Shorthand

Many prefixes catch on rapidly as a form of shorthand. In everyday life, the prefix e-for electronic has spread to words such as e-mail, e-commerce, e-Bay, and many more. X- for extreme appears in X-games and other X-sports.

The prefix endo- in the names of many surgical instruments signifies new endoscopic instruments that are longer and thinner and have smaller working tips to be used in areas where there is minimal access. Some examples are endoscissors, endosuture, endocautery, endo-grasper, and endosnare.

Health care products designed for specific age groups are also encoded by prefixes. Geri-, pertaining to old age, as in geriatrics, appears in geri-chair, geri-pads, geri-jacket, and the patent medicine Geritol, among others. Pedi- or pedia-, meaning "child," is found in the names pedi-cath, pedi-dose, pedi-set (instruments), and Pedialyte, a product used for children to replace fluid and electrolytes.

TABLE 3-4 Prefixes for Direction

PREFIX

MEANING

EXAMPLE

DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

ab-

away from

abduct ab-DUKT

to move away from the midline

ad-

toward; near

adhere ad-HER

to attach or stick together

dia-

through

dialysis df-AL-i-sis

separation (-lysis) by passage through a membrane (Fig. 3-2)

per-

through

percutaneous per-kU-TA-re-us

through the skin

trans- through transfusion introduction of blood or blood components into the trans-FU-zhun bloodstream trans- through transfusion introduction of blood or blood components into the trans-FU-zhun bloodstream

FIGURE 3-2. Peritoneal dialysis, in which the dialysate is infused into the peritoneal cavity by gravity. (Reprinted with permission from Rosdahl, Kowalski. Textbook of Basic Nursing. 8th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003:1208.)

Dialysate

Peritoneal Dialysis

FIGURE 3-2. Peritoneal dialysis, in which the dialysate is infused into the peritoneal cavity by gravity. (Reprinted with permission from Rosdahl, Kowalski. Textbook of Basic Nursing. 8th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003:1208.)

Exercise 3-4

Identify and define the prefix in each of the following words:

Prefix Meaning of Prefix

TABLE 3-5 Prefixes for Degree

PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLE DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

TABLE 3-5 Prefixes for Degree

PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLE DEFINITION OF EXAMPLE

hyper-

over, excess, abnormally high, increased

hyperventilation hi-per-ven-ti-LA-shun

excess breathing

hypo-*

under; below

hypoxia hi-POK-se-a

decreased oxygen in the tissues

olig/o-

few, scanty

oligomenorrhea ol-i-gO-men-o-RE-a

a scanty menstrual flow (men/o)

pan-

all

panacea pan-a-SE-a

remedy that cures all ills; a cure-all

super-*

above, excess

supernumerary su-per-N U-mer-ar-e

in excess number

*May also show position, as in hypodermic, superficial.

*May also show position, as in hypodermic, superficial.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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