Disorders of the Retina

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Retinal detachment, separation of the retina from the underlying layer of the eye (the choroid), may be caused by a tumor, hemorrhage, or injury to the eye (Fig. 18-8). This condition interferes with vision and is commonly repaired with laser surgery.

Degeneration of the macula, the point of sharpest vision, is a common cause of visual problems in the elderly. When associated with aging, this deterioration is described as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Macular degeneration typically affects central vision but not peripheral vision (Fig. 18-9). Other causes of macular degeneration are drug toxicity and hereditary diseases.

Circulatory problems associated with diabetes mellitus eventually cause changes in the retina referred to as diabetic retinopathy. In addition to vascular damage, there is a yellowish, waxy exudate high in lipopro-

Errors Refraction
FIGURE 18-7. Errors of refraction. (Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

FIGURE 18-8. Retinal detachment. (Reprinted with permission from Smeltzer SC, Bare BG. Brunner & Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

Vitreous humor

Textbook Digesty SystemMedical Terminology Textbook 9th
FIGURE 18-9. Visual loss associated with macular degeneration. (Reprinted with permission from Smeltzer SC, Bare BG. Brunner & Sud-darth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. 9th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.)

teins. With time, new blood vessels form and penetrate the vitreous humor, causing hemorrhage, detachment of the retina, and blindness.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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