Cancer

Modern Ayurveda

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Methods used in the diagnosis of cancer include physical examination, biopsy, imaging techniques, and laboratory test results for abnormalities, or "markers," associated with specific types of malignancies. Some cancer markers are byproducts, such as enzymes, hormones, and cellular proteins, that are abnormal or

DISPLAY 7-2 Surgical Instruments

INSTRUMENT

DESCRIPTION

bougie (BOO-zhe)

slender, flexible instrument for exploring and dilating tubes

cannula (KAN-u-la)

tube enclosing a trocar (see below) that allows escape of fluid or air after removal of the trocar

clamp

instrument used to compress tissue

curet (curette) (KU-ret)

spoon-shaped instrument for removing material from the wall of a cavity or other surface (see Fig. 7-9)

elevato r (EL-e-va-tor)

instrument for lifting tissue or bone

forceps (FOR-seps)

instrument for holding or extracting (see Fig. 7-9)

G i gli saw (JEL-yez)

flexible wire saw

he mos_tat (HE-mo-stat)

small clamp for stopping blood flow from a vessel (see Fig. 7-9)

rasp

surgical file

re tractor (re-TRAK-tor)

instrument used to maintain exposure by separating a wound and holding back organs or tissues (see Fig. 7-9)

rongeur (ron-ZHUR)

gouge forceps

scalpel (SKAL-pel)

surgical knife with a sharp blade (see Fig. 7-9)

scissors (SIZ-ors)

a cutting instrument with two opposing blades

sound (sownd)

instrument for exploring a cavity or canal (see Fig. 7-9)

troc ar (TRO-kar)

sharp pointed instrument contained in a cannula used to puncture a cavity

are produced in abnormal amounts. Researchers are also linking specific genetic mutations to certain forms of cancer.

Two methods, grading and staging, are used to classify cancers to select and evaluate therapy and estimate the outcome of the disease. Grading is based on histologic changes observed in the tumor cells when they are examined microscopically. Grades increase from I to IV with the increasing abnormality of the cells.

Staging is a procedure for establishing the clinical extent of tumor spread, both at the original site and in other parts of the body (metastases). The TNM system is commonly used. These letters stand for primary tumor (T), regional lymph nodes (N), and distant metastases (M). Evaluation in these categories varies for each type of tumor. Based on TNM results, a stage ranging from I—IV in severity is assigned. Cancers of the blood, lymphatic system, and nervous system are evaluated by different standards.

The most widely used methods for treatment of cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy (treatment with chemicals). Newer methods of immunotherapy use substances that stimulate the immune system as a whole or vaccines prepared specifically against a tumor. Hormone therapy may also be effective against certain types of tumors. When no active signs of the disease remain, the cancer is said to be in remission.

Cannula Ancient Instruments

FIGURE 7-9. Surgical instruments.

Hemostat Retractor

FIGURE 7-9. Surgical instruments.

"I" 7" ' ■ '

anesthe sia an-es-the-ze-a

Loss of the ability to feel pain, as by administration of a drug

auscultation aws-kul-TA-shun

Listening for sounds within the body, usually within the chest or abdomen (see Fig. 7-2)

b_opsy

BI -op-se

Removal of a small amount of tissue for microscopic examination

cautery

KAW-ter-e

Destruction of tissue by a damaging agent, such as a harmful chemical, heat, or electric current (electrocautery); cauterization

chemotherapy ke-mo-THER-a-pe

The use of chemicals to treat disease

d i agnosi s di -ag-NO-sis

The process of determining the cause and nature of an illness

endos cop e

EN-do-skop

An instrument for examining the inside of an organ or cavity through a body opening or small incision; most endoscopes use fiberoptics for viewing (see Fig. 7-6)

excision ek-SIZH-un

Removal by cutting (suffix -ectomy)

fixation

Holding or fastening a structure in a fixed position (suffix -pexy)

fik-SA-shun

grading

A method for evaluating a tumor based on microscopic examination

GRA-ding

of the cells

imm unotherapy

Treatment that involves stimulation or suppression of the immune

im-U-no-THER-a-pe

system, either specifically or nonspecifically

incision

A cut, as for surgery; also the act of cutting (suffix -tomy)

in-SIZH-un

inspection

Visual examination of the body

in-SPEK-shun

la_ser

A device that transforms light into a beam of intense heat and power;

LA-zer

used for surgery and diagnosis

ophthalmo_scop_e

An instrument for examining the interior of the eye (see Fig. 7-5A)

of-THAL-mo-skop

o_toscop_e

Instrument used to examine the ears (see Fig. 7-5B)

O-to-skop

palliative

Providing relief but not cure; a treatment that provides such relief

PAL-e-a-tiv

palpa_tion

Examining by placing the hands or fingers on the surface of the body

pal-PA-shun

to determine such characteristics as texture, temperature, movement, and consistency

percussion

Tapping the body lightly but sharply to assess the condition of the

per-KUSH-un

underlying part by the sounds obtained (see Fig. 7-1)

progno_sis

Prediction of the course and outcome of a disease

prog-NO-sis

radiography_

Use of x-rays passed through the body to make a visual record (radio-

ra-de-OG-ra-fe

graph) of internal structures on specially sensitized film

radion_ucli_de_

A substance that gives off radiation; used for diagnosis and treatment;

ra-de-o-NU-klid

also called radioisotope or radiopharmaceutical

r_emission

A lessening of the symptoms of a disease; the period during which

re-MISH-un

this decrease occurs or the period when no sign of a disease exists

s_ign

An objective evidence of disease that can be observed or tested; ex-

si n

amples are fever, rash, high blood pressure, and blood or urine abnormalities; an objective symptom

sphygmomanometer

The blood pressure apparatus or blood pressure cuff; pressure is read

sfig-mo-ma-NOM-e-ter

in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) when the heart is contracting (systolic pressure) and when the heart is relaxing (diastolic pressure) and is reported as systolic/diastolic (see Fig. 7-2)

staging

The process of classifying malignant tumors for diagnosis, treatment,

STA-jing

and prognosis

stethosc ope

An instrument used for listening to sounds produced within the body

STETH-o-skop

(from the Greek root steth/o, meaning "chest") (see Fig. 7-2)

surgery

A method for treating disease or injury by manual operations

SUR-jer-e

su ture

To unite parts by stitching them together; also the thread or other

SU-chur

material used in that process or the seam formed by surgical stitching

(suffix -rhaphy)

symptom

Any evidence of disease; sometimes limited to subjective evidence of

SIM-tum

disease, as experienced by the individual, such as pain, dizziness,

weakness

therapy

Treatment; intervention

THER-a-pe

Alternative and Complementary Medicine

acup uncture

An ancient Chinese method of inserting thin needles into the body at

AK-u-punk-chur

specific points to relieve pain, induce anesthesia, or promote healing;

similar effects can be obtained by using firm finger pressure at the

surface of the body in the technique of acupressure

biofeedback

A method for learning control of involuntary physiologic responses

bi-o-FED-bak

by using electronic devices to monitor bodily changes and feed this

information back to a person

chir opractic

A science that stresses the condition of the nervous system in diagno-

kT-ro-PRAK-tik

sis and treatment of disease; often, the spine is manipulated to correct

misalignment; most patients consult for musculoskeletal pain and

headaches (from Greek cheir, meaning "hand")

h ome opathy

A philosophy of treating disease by administering drugs in highly di-

ho-me-op-a-the

luted form along with promoting healthy life habits and a healthy en-

vironment (from home/o, meaning "same," and path, meaning

"disease")

na turopathy

A therapeutic philosophy of helping people to heal themselves by

na-chur-OP-a-the

developing healthy lifestyles, naturopaths may use some of the

methods of conventional medicine (from nature and path/o,

meaning "disease")

oste opathy

A system of therapy based on the theory that the body can overcome

os-te-OP-a-the

disease when it has normal structure, a favorable environment, and

proper nutrition; osteopaths use standard medical practices for diag-

nosis and treatment but stress the identification and correction of

faulty body structure (from oste/o, meaning "bone," and path, mean-

ing "disease")

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