Viruses as Human Pathogen Orthomyxoviruses

■ The representatives of this family are the different influenza A viruses. The A type is the most important of the three. It is the pathogen responsible for epidemics and pandemics, since its antigenicity structure changes within a narrower range due to point mutations (more frequent) and within a broader range due to recombination (less frequent). Type B tends to be endemic and type C is very rare. Influenza viruses are the classic flu pathogens, whereby the clinical picture is often characterized by bacterial superinfections as well.

Diagnosis: isolation in cell cultures, serology later in the course of the infection.

Prevention: dead vaccine for high-risk persons, e.g., with circulatory diseases. ■

Pathogen. This family has one genus, influenza virus, with the three types influenza A, B, and C. Influenza A is by far the most important and most frequently observed influenza virus. It repeatedly causes epidemics and even pandemics at greater intervals, in contrast to influenza B, which tends to persist in endemic form and causes few outbreaks. Influenza C is rarely isolated, most frequently in youths. It plays on a minor role as an infective pathogen.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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