■ Schistosoma eggs and microsporidia: sediment (about 20 ml) from 24-hour urine.


■ Visceral leishmaniosis: sample obtained under aseptic conditions by puncture from lymph nodes or bone marrow must be transferred immediately to culture medium (order from laboratory).

■ Cutaneous leishmaniosis: take specimen tissue from the edges of the lesion (following surface disinfection) and transfer to culture medium.

■ Acanthamoebas: 1-2 ml of contact lens rinsing liquid or conjunctival lavage, no additives.

Material for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

The PCR (see p. 409) is now used to detect or identify species or strains of different parasites, including for example Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Microspora, Echinococcus, Taenia, and filarial worms. For analysis with this technique, the following materials can be sent to the laboratory, depending on the parasite species involved: biopsy or tissue specimens from hosts, blood (with EDTA or heparin added), sputum, fecal specimens or other materials in native condition, and parts of parasites (for example proglottids of Taenia). Some specimens can also be fixed in 70% ethanol (consult with the laboratory).

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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