Tunga penetrans

Causative agent of tungaosis (tungiasis)

Morphology and biology. Tunga penetrans, the chigoe, jigger, or sand flea, infest humans and animal species, for example dogs. The males, young females, and other stages live in sandy soil. Fertilized females are highly active in questing for a host. If they succeed, they penetrate the skin head first, then swell up within one to two weeks, sometimes reaching the size of a pea, from their original size of 1-2 mm in length. They lay eggs over a period of about two weeks, and then die while still under the skin.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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