Sources of Infection Transmission Pathways

Nosocomial infections originate either from the patient's own flora (endogenous infections) or from external sources (exogenous infections). Endogenous infections are the more frequent type. In such cases, the patient may have brought the pathogens into the hospital. It is, however, frequently the case that a patient's skin and mucosa are colonized within one to two days by bacteria of the hospital flora, which often shows multiple resistance to antibiotics and replaces the patient's individual flora, and that most endogenous infections are then actually caused by the specific hospital flora. The source of infection for exogenous infections is most likely to lie with the medical staff. In most cases, the pathogens are transmitted from patient to patient during medical and nursing activities. Less frequently, the staff is either also infected or colonized by the hospital flora. Another important cause of nosocomial infections is technical medical measures that facilitate passage of the pathogens into the body. All invasive diagnostic measures present infection risks. The patient's surroundings, i.e., the air, floor, or walls of the hospital room, are relatively unimportant as sources of infection.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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