Pathogens Infections Frequency

The significance of the different human pathogens in nosocomial infections varies widely:

■ Subcellular entities. Isolated cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease due to unsterilized instruments have been described in the literature. Such accidents now no longer occur.

Table 4.17 Relative Frequency of Causative Pathogens in Nosocomial Infections (arranged according to the pathogen frequency levels in the column "Total")1

Bacteria

UTI2

RTI2

PWI2

SEP2

Other2

Total

E. coli

40.5

9.9

23.3

13.2

15.6

22.40

Enterococci

19.8

29.5

27.2

0.0

11.7

14.75

Staphylococcus aureus

3.2

25.4

45.5

15.8

13.0

11.11

Coagulase-negative staphylo-cocci

4.5

9.9

14.8

34.2

10.4

8.01

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

5.4

46.5

26.0

0.0

1.3

7.65

Klebsiella sp.

4.1

20.8

15.0

10.5

3.9

6.01

Fungi

5.9

19.1

0.0

2.6

11.7

6.01

Streptococcus sp.

1.8

16.8

8.2

0.0

9.1

4.74

Proteus mirabilis

5.0

4.0

2.4

0.0

2.6

3.10

Enterobacter sp.

1.4

4.0

4.7

2.6

1.3

2.00

Serratia sp.

0.9

1.7

3.8

7.9

0.0

2.00

Other Enterobacteriaceae

1.9

6.3

9.7

2.6

3.9

2.00

Acinetobacter sp.

2.7

5.7

1.2

0.0

0.0

1.82

Anaerobes

0.5

0.0

4.8

0.0

0.0

1.46

Other Gram-positive bacteria

0.0

0.0

7.3

2.6

2.6

1.28

Morganella sp.

1.4

4.0

0.0

0.0

1.3

1.09

Providencia sp.

0.9

0.0

5.0

0.0

2.6

1.09

Pseudomonadaceae (exception: P. aeruginosa)

0.0

3.4

1.2

2.6

2.6

1.09

Other (under 1 %)

0.5

0.0

5.0

2.6

1.3

3.48

1 Data (modified) acc. to "Nosokomiale Infektionen in Deutschland - Erfassung und Prevention (NIDEP-Studie)." Vol. 56, Publication Series of the German Federal Health Office. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, 1995.

2 UTI = urinary tract infections, RTI = lower respiratory tract infections, PWI = postoperative wound infections, SEP = primary sepsis, Other = all other infections.

There are no reliable figures available on viral nosocomial infections. A rough estimate puts viral nosocomial infections at less than 1 % of the total. An example of a viral nosocomial infection is infectious hepatitis transmitted by blood or blood products.

■ Bacteria are the main pathogens involved in nosocomial infections. Most of the causative organisms are facultatively pathogenic (opportunistic) bacteria, which are frequently resistant to many different antibiotics. These bacteria have found niches in which they persist as so-called hospital flora. The resistance patters seen in these bacteria reflect the often wide variations between anti-infective regimens as practiced in different hospitals.

■ Fungi. Fungal nosocomial infections have been on the increase in recent years. It can be said in general that they affect immunocompromised patients and that neutropenic patients are particular susceptible.

Table 4.17 lists the pathogens that cause the most significant nosocomial infections as determined in a prevalence study done in Germany (East and West) in 1995 (NIDEP Study).

Table 4.18 shows the prevalence levels at which nosocomial infections occurred in 72 selected hospitals on a given date in the above study. The prevalence and pathogen data shown here approximate what other studies have found. Prevalence and incidence levels can vary considerably from hospital to

Table 4.18 Frequency (prevalence) of the Most Important Nosocomial Infection Types (%)1

Infection Internal Surgery Gyneco- Intensive All

Table 4.18 Frequency (prevalence) of the Most Important Nosocomial Infection Types (%)1

Infection Internal Surgery Gyneco- Intensive All

medicine

logy

care

patients

Urinary tract infections

1.57

1.45

0.91

2.35

1.46

Lower respiratory tract infections

0.63

0.30

0.09

9.00

0.72

Postoperative wound infections

0.03

1.34

0.05

1.37

0.55

Primary sepsis

0.31

0.15

0.14

2.15

0.29

Other infections

0.52

0.74

0.27

1.96

0.62

Patients with at least one infection

2.97

3.80

1.45

15.30

3.46

Figures from "Nosokomiale Infektionen in Deutschland - Erfassung und Prevention (NIDEP-Studie)." Vol. 56, Publication Series of the German Federal Health Office. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, 1995.

Figures from "Nosokomiale Infektionen in Deutschland - Erfassung und Prevention (NIDEP-Studie)." Vol. 56, Publication Series of the German Federal Health Office. Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, 1995.

hospital. The prevalence of nosocomial infections increases with the size of the hospital. Within a particular hospital, the infection rate is always highest in the intensive care units.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • mai
    How e.coli pathogen can affect the immunocompromised patients?
    6 years ago

Post a comment