Opportunistic pseudomonads. Other Pseudomonas species besides P. aeruginosa are capable of causing infections in immunosuppressed patients. These nosocomial infections are, however, infrequent. It would therefore not be particularly useful here to list all of the species that occasionally come to the attention of physicians. Classic opportunists also include Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (formerly Xanthomonas maltophilia) and Burkholderia cepacia (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia). These species all occur in hospitals and frequently show resistance to anti-infective agents. Antibiotic therapy must therefore always be based on a resistance test.
Burkholderia mallei. This species is the causative organism in malleus or glanders, a disease of solipeds. The bacteria invade the human organism through microtraumata, e.g., in the skin or mucosa, and form local ulcers. Starting from these primary infection foci they can move to other organs, either lymphogenously or hematogenously, and cause secondary abscesses there. Malleus no longer occurs in Europe.
Burkholderia pseudomallei. This species is the causative organism in melioidosis, a disease of animals and humans resembling malleus. The natural reservoirs of B. pseudomallei are soil and surface water. The pathogen invades the body through injuries of the skin or mucosa and causes multiple subcutaneous and subserous abscesses and granulomas. Starting from primary foci, the infection can disseminate and cause abscesses in a number of different organs. This disease is observed mainly in Asia.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.