■ Nosocomial infections occur in hospitalized patients as complications of their primary disease. Such infections are reported in an average of approximately 3.5% (Germany) to 5% (USA) of all hospitalized patients, in tertiary care hospitals in about 10% and in the intensive care units of those in about 15-20% of cases. The most frequent types of infection are urinary tract infections (42%), pneumonia (21%), surgical wound infections (16%), and sepsis (8%). The pathogen types most frequently involved are opportunistic, Gram-negative rods, staphylococci and enterococci, followed by fungi. The bacteria are often resistant to many different antibiotics. The hands of medical staff play a major role in transmission of the infections. Control of nosocomial infections requires a number of operational measures (disinfection, asepsis, rationalized antibiotic therapies, isolation), organizational measures (hygiene committee, recognition of infections, procedural guidelines, training programs), and structural measures. ■
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.