Nosocomial Infections

■ Nosocomial infections occur in hospitalized patients as complications of their primary disease. Such infections are reported in an average of approximately 3.5% (Germany) to 5% (USA) of all hospitalized patients, in tertiary care hospitals in about 10% and in the intensive care units of those in about 15-20% of cases. The most frequent types of infection are urinary tract infections (42%), pneumonia (21%), surgical wound infections (16%), and sepsis (8%). The pathogen types most frequently involved are opportunistic, Gram-negative rods, staphylococci and enterococci, followed by fungi. The bacteria are often resistant to many different antibiotics. The hands of medical staff play a major role in transmission of the infections. Control of nosocomial infections requires a number of operational measures (disinfection, asepsis, rationalized antibiotic therapies, isolation), organizational measures (hygiene committee, recognition of infections, procedural guidelines, training programs), and structural measures. ■

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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