General. The nematodes (nema: thread) are threadlike, nonsegmented parasites, a few mm to 1 m in length, with separated sexes. They possess a complex tegument and a digestive tract. The males are usually smaller than the females and are equipped with copulatory organs that often show features specific to each species. Development from the egg includes four larval stages and four moltings before the adult stage is reached. Some species require an intermediate host to complete development.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.