Various methods are employed to inhibit, or suppress, the immune response:

■ Generalized immunosuppression; glucocorticoids (inhibition of inflammatory cells), cytostatic drugs (endoxan, DNA alkylating agents, methotrexate, antimetabolites), and more specific immunosuppressants, e.g., cyclospor-ine A, FK506, rapamycin (inhibition of signal transduction in T cells, see Fig. 2.11, p. 73).

■ Immunosuppression by antibodies, soluble cytokine receptors, deletion of T cells or T-cellsub-populations (anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-CD3, anti-Thyl, etc.). Administration of monoclonal antibodies directed against adhesion molecules and accessory molecules or cytokines and cytokine receptors. Administration of soluble cytokine receptors, or soluble CTLA4, in order to block B7-1 and B7-2 (important costimulators, see p. 71ff.).

■ Specific tolerance induction or "negative immunization." Massive and depletive T-cell activation brought about by systemic administration of large amounts of peptides, proteins (risk of immunopathology), or cells (chimer-ism).

■ Complete neutralization and elimination of the antigen with the purpose of preventing induction of an antibody response. Example; rhesus prophylaxis with hyperimmune serum.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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