Mycology

5 General Mycology 348

General Characteristics of Fungi 348

Definition and Taxonomy 348

Morphology 349

Metabolism 351

Reproduction in Fungi 351

General Aspects of Fungal Disease 352

Fungal Allergies and Fungal Toxicoses 352

Mycogenic Allergies 352

Mycotoxicoses 353

Mycoses 353

Host-Pathogen Interactions 353

Diagnosis 356

Therapy 356

6 Fungi as Human Pathogens 358

Primary Mycoses 358

Histoplasma capsulatum (Histoplasmosis) 358

Coccidioides immitis (Coccidioidomycosis) 360

Blastomyces dermatitidis

(North American Blastomycosis) 361

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (South American

Blastomycosis) 361

Opportunistic Mycoses 362

Candida (Soor) 362

Aspergillus (Aspergillosis) 364

Cryptococcus neoformans (Cryptococcosis) 366

Mucor, Absidia, Rhizopus (Mucormycoses) 367

Phaeohyphomycetes, Hyalohyphomycetes,

Opportunistic Yeasts, Penicillium marneffei 369

Pneumocystis carinii (Pneumocystosis) 370

Subcutaneous Mycoses 372

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Cutaneous Mycoses 372

Dermatophytes (Dermatomycoses or

Dermatophytoses) 372

Other Cutaneous Mycoses 374

IV Virology

7 General Virology 376

Definition 376

Morphology and Structure 377

Classification 380

Replication 381

Viral Protein Synthesis 387

Genetics 389

Host-Cell Reactions 392

Cell Destruction (Cytocidal Infection, Necrosis) 392

Virus Replication without Cell Destruction

(Noncytocidal Infection) 393

Latent Infection 394

Tumor Transformation 394

Carcinogenic Retroviruses ("Oncoviruses") 394

DNA Tumor Viruses 396

Pathogenesis 396

Defense Mechanisms 399

Nonspecific Immune Defenses 400

Specific Immune Defenses 401

Prevention 402

Chemotherapy 404

Laboratory Diagnosis 405

Virus Isolation by Culturing 406

Direct Virus Detection 408

Virus Detection Following Biochemical

Amplification 409

Serodiagnosis 411

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Viruses as Human Pathogens 412

DNA Viruses 412

Viruses with Single-Stranded DNA Genomes 412

Parvoviruses 412

Viruses with Double-Stranded DNA Genomes 413

Papillomaviruses 413

Poiyomaviruses 415

Adenoviruses 416

Herpesviruses 418

Poxviruses 426

Hepadnaviruses: Hepatitis B Virus and

Hepatitis D Virus 429

RNA Viruses 434

Viruses with Single-Stranded RNA Genomes,

Sense-Strand Orientation 434

Picornaviruses 434

Astrovirus and Calicivirus; Hepatitis E 438

Astroviruses 439

Caliciviruses 439

Hepatitis E Virus 440

Togaviruses 440

Flaviviruses 442

Coronaviruses 446

Retroviruses 448

Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) 451

Viruses with Double-Stranded RNA Genomes 455

Reoviruses 455

Viruses with Single-Stranded RNA Genomes,

Antisense-Strand Orientation 457

Orthomyxoviruses 458

Bunyaviruses 460

Arenaviruses 462

Paramyxoviruses 464

Rhabdoviruses 467

Filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola Viruses) 471

Subviral Pathogens: Viroids and Prions 472

Viroids 472

Prions 473

XXIV Contents V Parasitology

9 Protozoa 476

J. Eckert

Giardia intestinalis 478

Trichomonas vaginalis 481

Trypanosoma 483

Leishmania 493

Entamoeba histolytica and Other Intestinal Amebas 499

Naegleria, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia 507

Toxoplasma gondii 508

Isospora 515

Cyclospora cayetanensis 515

Sarcocystis 516

Cryptosporidium 517

Plasmodium 520

Babesia 538

Microspora 538

Balantidium coli 542

Helminths 543

10 J. Eckert

Plathelmintha (syn. Platyhelminthes) 546

Trematoda (Flukes) 546

Schistosoma (Blood Flukes) 546

Fasciola species 555

Dicrocoelium 557

Opisthorchis and Clonorchis (Cat Liver Fluke and

Chinese Liver Fluke) 557

Paragonimus (Lung Flukes) 558

Cestoda (Tapeworms) 560

Taenia Species 560

Echinococcus 565

Hymenolepis 575

Diphyllobothrium 575

Nematoda (Roundworms) 576

Intestinal Nematodes 576

Ascaris lumbricoides (Large Roundworm) 577

Trichuris trichiura (Whipworm) 579

Ancylostoma and Necator (Hookworms) 580

Strongyloides 582

Enterobius 585

Nematodal Infections of Tissues and the Vascular System 587

Filarioidea (Filariae) 587

Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia Species 588

Loa 593

Mansonella Species 593

Onchocerca 594

Trichinella 597

Infections Caused by Nematodal Larvae 601

Larva Migrans Externa or Cutaneous Larva

Migrans ("Creeping Eruption") 602

Larva Migrans Interna or

Visceral Larva Migrans 602

Arthropods 606

11 J. Eckert

Arachnida 607

Ticks (Ixodida) 607

Mites 610

Insects 612

Lice (Anoplura) 612

Bugs (Heteroptera) 616

Mosquitoes and Flies (Diptera: Nematocera and

Brachycera) 616

Fleas (Siphonatera) 618

Appendix to Chapters 9-11 621

Shipment of Materials 621

Stool 621

Blood 622

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Serum 623

Cerebrospinal Fluid 623

Bronchial Specimens 623

Urine 623

Cultivation 623

Material for Polymerase Chain Reaction 624

Tissue Specimens and Parasites 624

immunodiagnostic and Molecular Techniques 624

VI Organ System Infections

Etiological and Laboratory

Diagnostic Summaries in Tabular Form 630

Upper Respiratory Tract 630

Lower Respiratory Tract 632

Urogenital Tract 635

Genital Tract (Venereal Diseases) 637

Gastrointestinal Tract 638

Digestive Glands and Peritoneum 641

Nervous System 644

Cardiovascular system 647

Hematopoietic and Lymphoreticular System 648

Skin and Subcutaneous Connective Tissue (Local or Systemic infections with Mainly Cutaneous Manifestation) 650

Bone, Joints, and Muscles 653

Eyes and ears 655

Literature 659

Medical Microbiology and the Internet 661

Index 663

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