■ Infectious diseases are caused by subcellular infectious entities (prions, viruses), prokaryotic bacteria, eukaryotic fungi and protozoans, metazoan animals, such as parasitic worms (helminths), and some arthropods. Definitive proof that one of these factors is the cause of a given infection is demonstrated by fulfillment of the three Henle-Koch postulates. For technical reasons, a number of infections cannot fulfill the postulates in their strictest sense as formulated by R. Koch, in these cases a modified form of the postulates is applied. ■
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