The measures taken to control and prevent nosocomial infections correspond in the wider sense to the general methods of infection control. The many different individual measures will not be listed here. The infection control program varies depending on the situation in each particular hospital and can be summarized in three general groups:
Operational measures. This category includes all measures pertaining to treatment and care of patients and cleaning measures. This includes asepsis, disinfection, sterilization, and cleaning. Further precautionary operational measures include isolation of patients that would be sources of infection and the economical and specific administration of antibiotic therapies.
Organizational measures. The organization of hospital infection control must be adapted to the structure of each particular hospital. Realization of the necessary measures, which of course always involve working time and expense, is best realized by establishing an infection control committee charged with the following tasks: determination and analysis of the situation,
definition of measures required to improve infection control by issuing binding guidelines, cooperation in the planning and acquisition of operational and structural facilities, cooperation on functional procedures in the various sections of the hospital, contributions to staff training in matters of hospital infection control. In order to carry out these tasks efficiently, the committee should have access to a working group of specialists. In larger hospitals, a hospital epidemiologist, and staff as required, are retained for these functions.
These measures refer above all to new structures, which must be built in accordance with hygienic criteria. It is therefore the obligation of the planning architect to consult experts when planning the hygienically relevant parts of a construction measure. Hygienic aspects must of course also be considered in reconstruction and restoration of older building substance.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.