■ The bunyavirus and phlebovirus species are transmitted by arthropods. They cause benign, febrile infections, more rarely infections of the CNS and hemorrhagic fever. All bunyaviruses feature a single-stranded antisense RNA genome with three segments. Certain types of hantaviruses are the pathogens responsible for "hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome" (HFRS), other types cause the "hantavirus pulmonary syndrome" (HPS). The hantavirus species are transmitted from mouse species to humans aerogenically.

Diagnosis: serological.

Prevention: exposure prophylaxis. ■

Pathogen. The family Bunyaviridae comprises over 200 viral species, among them four human pathogen genera: Bunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus, and Hantavirus. The bunyaviruses are spherical, 80-110 nm in size, and posses envelopes with spikes formed on membranes of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The genome consists of three antisense-strand RNA segments, whereby each segment produces a separate ribonucleoprotein complex, resulting in a unique feature of the virion: it contains three helical nucleocapsids.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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