Astrovirus and Calicivirus Hepatitis E

■ Astroviruses, measuring 28-30 nm and caliciviruses, 30-35 nm, are enteritis pathogens in small children. Human pathogens in these groups include the Norwalk virus and hepatitis E virus (HEV). The latter occurs epidemically and endemically in Asian, Central American, and African countries. It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, above all via drinking water, and causes relatively benign infections except in pregnant women. Hepatitis E is considered a traveler's disease. ■

Isolated cases and minor outbreaks of enteritis are typically attributed to unspecified viral infections. Besides unidentified bacterial infections, the viral pathogens that can cause such infections include adenovirus, rotavirus, astro-virus, and calicivirus, whereby the taxonomy of the latter two have not been confirmed.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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