Abbreviations

■ ABC:

antigen-binding cell

CCC:

ABS:

antigen-binding site

ADA:

adenosine deaminase

CD:

ADCC:

antibody-dependent

cellular cytotoxicity

CDR:

ADE:

antibody-dependent

enhancement (of viral

CE:

infection)

CEA:

AE:

alveolar echinococcosis

CFA:

AFC:

antibody-forming cell

CFT:

AFP:

alpha-fetoprotein

CFU:

AIDS:

acquired immune

CJD:

deficiency syndrome

CLIP:

ANA:

antinuclear antibodies

CMI:

APC:

antigen-presenting cell

CMV:

APO:

apoptosis antigen

aPV:

acellular pertussis vaccine

CNS:

ASL titer:

antistreptolysin titer

AZT:

azidothymidine

Con A:

■ BAL:

bronchoalveolar lavage

CPE:

BALT:

bronchus-associated

CPH:

lymphoid tissue

BCG:

bacillus Calmette-Guerin

CR:

BCGF:

B-cell growth factor

CSF:

Bcl2:

B-cell leukemia 2 antigen

CTA:

BSE:

bovine spongiform ence-

CTB:

phalopathy

CTL:

CTX:

■ C:

complement

CAH:

chronic aggressive

■ DAF:

hepatitis

DAG:

CAM:

cell adhesion molecules

DARC:

CAPD:

continuous ambulant

peritoneal dialysis

DC:

covalently closed circular (DNA)

cluster of differentiation/ cluster determinant complementarity-determining regions cystic echinococcosis carcinoembryonic antigen colonizing factor antigen complement fixation test colony forming units Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease class II-inhibiting protein cell-mediated immunity cytomegaly virus (cytomegalovirus) central nervous system/ coagulase-negative staphylococci concanavalin A cytopathic effect chronic persistent hepatitis cistron region colony-stimulating factor cholera toxin A cholera toxin B cytotoxic CD8+ T cell cholera toxin (element)

decay accelerating factor diacyl glycerol Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines dendritic cells

DHF:

dengue hemorrhagic

virus

fever

EPEC:

enteropathogenic

DHPG:

dihydroxy propoxy-

E. coli

methyl guanine

EPS:

extracellular polymer

D vaccine:

substance

diphtheria toxoid vaccine

ETEC:

enterotoxic E. coli

DNA:

deoxyribonucleic acid

EU:

European Union

DNP:

dinitrophenol

DR:

direct repeats

a F factor:

fertility factor

ds:

double-stranded nucleic

FA:

Freund's adjuvant

acid

FACS:

fluorescence-activated

DSS:

dengue shock syndrome

cell sorter

DTH:

delayed type hypersensi-

Fas:

F antigen

tivity

FcR:

Fc receptor

DtxR:

diphtheria toxin repressor

FDC:

follicular dendritic cell

FHA:

filamentous hemagglutin

a EA:

early antigen

FITC:

fluorescein isothiocyanate

EAE:

experimental allergic

FTA-ABS:

fluorescent treponemal

encephalitis

antibody absorption test

EAF:

EPEC adhesion factor

EaggEC:

enteroaggregative

a G6PDD:

glucose-6-phosphate

Escherichia coli

dehydrogenase deficiency

EB:

elementary body

GAE:

granulomatous amebic

EBNA:

Epstein-Barr nuclear

encephalitis

antigen

gag:

group-specific antigen

EBV:

Epstein-Barr virus

GALT:

gut-associated lymphoid

EDTA:

ethylene diamine tetra-

tissue

acetic acid

GC:

guanine-cytosine/gas

eEF2:

eucaryotic elongation

chromatography

factor 2

GM-CSF:

granulocyte-macrophage

EF:

edema factor in spotted

colony-stimulating factor

fevers

GP:

glycoprotein

EHEC:

enterohemorrhagic

GSS:

Gerstmann-Straussler-

E. coli

Scheinker (syndrome)

EIA:

enzyme immunoassay

GVH:

graft-versus-host (reaction)

EIEC:

enteroinvasive E. coli

EITB:

enzyme-linked immuno-

a H:

heavy chain

electrotransfer blot

HACEK:

Haemophilus, Actinoba-

ELISA:

enzyme-linked immuno-

cillus, Cardiobacterium,

sorbent assay

Eikenella, Kingella

EM:

electron microscopy

HAT:

hypoxanthine,

EMB:

ethambutol

aminopterin, thymidine

EMCV:

encephalomyocarditis

Hb:

hemoglobin

HBs: hepatitis B surface antigen HBV: hepatitis B virus HB vaccine: hepatitis B vaccine HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma HCV: hepatitis C virus/

(human corona virus) HDCV: human diploid cell vaccine HDV: hepatitis D virus HEV: hepatitis E virus/high endothelial venules Hfr: high frequency of recombination HGE: human granulocytic ehrlichiosis HGV: hepatitis G virus HHV: human herpes virus HI: hemagglutination inhibition Hib: Haemophilus influenzae, type b serovar HIV: human immunodeficiency virus HME: human monocytic ehrlichiosis HPLC: high-pressure liquid chromatography HPS: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome HRF: homologous restriction factor (also histamine releasing factor) HFRS: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome hsp70: heat shock protein 70 HSV: herpes simplex virus HTLV: human T cell leukemia virus

HuCV: human calicivirus HUS: hemolytic-uremic syndrome HVG: host-versus-graft (reaction)

IEP: immunoelectrophoresis IFAT: indirect immunofluores-

cent antibody test IFN: interferon Ig: immunoglobulin IHA: indirect hemagglutina-tion

(I)IF: (indirect) immunofluor-

escence IL: interleukin In: integron INH: isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide) IP3: inositol trisphosphate IPV: inactivated polio vaccine IR: inverted repeats Ir genes: immune response genes IS: insertion sequence/inter-cistron space

LA: latex agglutination lac operon: lactose operon LAK:

lymphokine-activated killer cells leprosy bacterium leukocyte common antigen

LCM(V): lymphocytic chorio-meningitis (virus) lupus erythematosus lymphocyte function antigen large granular lymphocyte leukemia inhibitory factor lepromatous leprosy light microscopy larva migrans cutanea

LGL:

LIF:

LMC:

LMV:

larva migrans visceralis

MZM:

marginal zone macro-

LOS:

lipo-oligosaccharide

phages

LPS:

lipopolysaccharide

LT:

heat-labile E. coli entero-

■ NANB:

nonA, nonB hepatitis

toxin

NCVP:

noncapsidic viral protein

LTR:

long terminal repeats

NE:

Nephropathica epidemica

Nfa:

nonfimbrial adhesin

■ MAC:

membrane attack

NGU:

nongonococcal urethritis

complex

NIDEP:

German study on assess-

MAF:

macrophage activating

ment and prevention of

factor

nosocomial infections

MALT:

mucosa-associated

NK cells:

natural killer cells

lymphoid tissue

NTM:

nontuberculous

MBC:

minimal bactericidal

(atypical) mycobateria

concentration

(see MOTT)

MBP:

major basic protein/

NTR:

nontranslated region

myelin basic protein

MCP:

membrane cofactor

■ OC:

open circular (DNA)

protein

OM:

opportunistic mycosis

M-CSF:

macrophage colony-

OMP, Omp: outer membrane

stimulating factor

protein

MF:

merthiolate-formalin

OPV:

oral polio vaccine

Mf:

microfilaria

OSP, Osp:outer surface protein

MHC:

major histocompatibility

complex

■ P:

promoter

MIC:

minimal inhibitory

PAE:

postantibiotic effect

concentration

PAIR:

puncture, aspiration, in-

MIF:

migration inhibitory

jection, respiration

factor/microimmune-

PAS:

para-aminosalicylic acid/

fluorescence

periodic acid-Schiff stain

MLC:

mixed lymphocyte

PAM:

primary amebic

culture

meningoencephalitis

MLR:

mixed lymphocyte

PAP:

pyelonephritis-associated

reaction

pili

MMR:

live, attenuated, trivalent

PBL:

peripheral blood lym-

measles, mumps, and

phocytes

rubella vaccine

PC:

phosphoryl choline/pri-

MMTV:

murine mammary tumor

mary (tuberculous)

virus

complex, Ghon's complex

MOMP:

major outer membrane

PCA:

passive cutaneous

protein

anaphylaxis

MOTT:

mycobacteria other than

PCR:

polymerase chain reaction

TB (see NTM)

PEG: polyethylene glycol PFC: plaque-forming cell PHA: phytohemagglutinin PI: pathogenicity island p.i.: post infection PIP2: phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PKC: protein kinase C PLC: phospholipase C PMA: pokeweed mitogen PML: progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy PMN: polymorphonuclear neu-

trophilic granulocytes PNP: purine nucleoside phos-

phorylase PPD: purified protein derivative PRP: polyribosylribitol phosphate

PrP: prion protein Ptx: pertussis toxin PZA: pyrazinamide

■ QBC: quantitative buffy coat analysis

RAST: radioallergosorbent test RES: reticuloendothelial system

RF: rheumatoid factor RFFIT: rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test Rh antigen: rhesus antigen RIA: radioimmunoassay RIBA: recombinant immuno-

blot assay RIG: rabies immunoglobulin RIST: radioimmunosorbent test

RMP: rifampicin RMSF: Rocky Mountain spotted fever

RNA: ribonucleic acid RNP: ribonucleoprotein RS: respiratory syncytial virus

RT: reverse transcriptase RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction

RTI: respiratory tract infection RVF: Rift Valley fever

■ SAF: sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin SALT: skin-associated lymphoid tissue

SCF: stem cell factor SCID: severe combined immunodeficiency disease SDS: sodium (Na+) dodecyl sulfate

SEA-E: staphylococcal entero-

toxins A-E SEM: scanning electron microscopy SEP: sepsis

SEPEC: septic E. coli pathovar SFT: Sabin-Feldman test SLE: systemic lupus erythe-matosus

SPE: streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SRBC: sheep red blood cells SRSV: small round-structured virus ss: single-stranded (nucleic acids)

SSME: spring-summer meningo-

encephalitis SSPE: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ST: heat-stable E. coli entero-toxin

sp.:

species

Tra:

transfer

spp.:

species (plural)

TSE:

transmissible spongiform

SV:

simian virus

encephalopathy

SWI:

surgical wound infection

TSS:

toxic shock syndrome

TSST-1:

toxic shock syndrome

■ TATA:

tumor-associated trans-

toxin-1

plantation antigen

TU:

tuberculin units

TB:

tuberculosis bacterium

Tc:

cytotoxic T cell

■ UPEC:

uropathogenic E. coli

TCGF:

T cell growth factor

UTI:

urinary tract infection

TCP:

toxin coregulated pili

TCR:

T cell receptor

■ VacA:

vacuolating cytotoxin

Td:

tetanus/low-dose

var.:

variety

diphtheria toxoids

VCA:

viral capsid antigen

T-dep:

thymus dependent

VCAM:

vascular cell adhesion

antigens

molecule

T-DTH:

delayed type hyper

VDRL:

Venereal Disease

sensitivity (T cells)

Research Laboratory

TEM:

transmission electron

VLA:

very late antigen

microscopy

vmp:

variable major protein

Th, TH:

T helper cell

VPv:

viral protein

T-ind:

thymus-independent

VPg:

genome-linked viral

antigens

protein

TL:

tuberculoid leprosy

VSA:

variant surface antigen

TME:

transmissible mink

VSV:

vesicular stomatitis virus

encephalopathy

VTEC:

verocytotoxin-producing

Tn:

transposon

E. coli

TNF:

tumor necrosis factor

VZV:

varicella zoster virus

TPHA:

Treponema pallidum

hemagglutination assay

■ WB:

Western blot

TPI test:

Treponema pallidum

WHO:

World Health Organiza-

immobilization test

tion

TPPA:

Treponema pallidum

particle agglutination

assay

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