1. March LM, Bagga H. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 2004; 180(5 suppl): S6-S10.
2. Karlson EW, Mandl LA, Aweh GN et al. Total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis; the importance of age, obesity, and other modifiable factors. Am J Med 2003; 114: 155-159.
3. Flugsrud GB, Nordsletten L, Espehaug B, Havelin LI, Meyer HE. Risk factors for total hip replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a cohort study in 50 034 persons. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 675-682.
4. Pavelka K. Osteonecrosis. Baillieres Best Prac Res Clin Rheumatol 2000; 14: 399-414.
5. Assouline D, Chang Y, Greenspan A, Shoenfeld Y, Gershwin ME. Pathogenesis and natural history of osteonecrosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2002; 32: 94-129.
6. Lavernia CJ, Sierra RJ, Grieco FR. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1999; 7(4): 250-261.
7. Bachmeier CJ, March LM, Cross MJ et al. A comparison of outcomes in osteoarthritis patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement surgery. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2001; 9: 137-146.
8. Ethgen O, Bruyere O, Richy F, Dardennes C, Reginster JY. Health-related quality of life in total hip and total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 2004; 86A: 963-973.
9. Parvizi J, Johnson BG, Rowland C, Ereth NH, Lewallen DG. Thirty day mortality after elective total hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83: 1524-1528.
10. Miller KA, Callaghan JJ, Goetz DD, Johnston RC. Early postoperative mortality following total hip arthroplasty in a community setting: a single surgeon experience. Iowa Orthop J 2003; 23: 36-42.
11. Nunley RM, Lachiewicz PF. Mortality after total hip and knee arthroplasty in a medium volume university practice. J Arthroplasty 2003; 18: 278-285.
12. Astor BC, Kaczmarek RG, Hefflin BJ, Daley WR. Mortality after aortic valve replacement: results from a nationally representative database. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70: 1939-1945.
13. Taylor HD, Dennis DA, Crane HS. Relationship between mortality rates and hospital patient volume for Medicare patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery of the hip, knee, spine, and femur. J Arthroplasty 1997; 12: 235-242.
14. Kreder HJ, Deyo RA, Koepsell T, Swiontkowski MF, Kreuter W. Relationship between the volume of total hip replacements performed by providers and the rates of postoperative complications in the state of Washington. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1997; 79: 485-494.
15. Losina E, Barrett J, Mahomed NN, Baron JA, Katz JN. Early failures of total hip replacement; effect of surgeon volume. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 1338-1343.
16. Franklin J, Robertsson O, Gestsson J, Lohmander LS, Ingvarsson T. Revision and complication rates in 654 Exeter total hip replacements, with a maximum follow-up of 20 years. Musculoskeletal Disorders 2003; 4(1): 6.
17. Lucht U. The Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register. Acta Orthop Scand 2000; 71: 433-439.
18. Soderman P, Malchau H, Herberts P et al. Outcone after total hip arthroplasty, Part II. Disease-specific follow-up and the Swedish National Total Hip Arthroplasty Register. Acta Ortop Scand 2001; 72: 113-119.
19. Torchia ME, Klassen RA, Biancio AJ. Total hip arthroplasty with cement in patients less than twenty years old: long-term results. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996; 78: 995-100.
20. Callaghan JJ, Albright JC, Goetz DD, Olejniczak JP, Johnston RC. Charnley total hip arthroplasty with cement. Minimum twenty-five year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82(4): 487-497.
21. Nicholls MA, Selby JB, Hartford JM. Athletic activity after total joint replacement. Orthopedics 2002; 11: 1283-1287.
22. Brown TE, Larson B, Shen F, Moskal JT. Thigh pain after cementless total hip arthroplasty: evaluation and management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2002; 10: 385-392.
23. Anderson FA Jr, Hirsh J, White K, Fitzgerald RH Jr. Temporal trends in prevention of venous thromboembolism following primary total hip or knee arthroplasty 1996-2001: findings from the Hip and Knee Registry. Chest 2003; 124(6 suppl): 349S-356S.
24. Wroblewski BM, Siney PD, Fleming PA. Fatal pulmonary embolism and mortality after revision of failed total hip arthroplasties. J Arthroplasty 2000; 15: 437-439.
25. Hirakawa, Jacobs JJ, Urban R, Saito T. Mechanisms of failure of total hip replacements: lessons learned from retrieval studies. Clin Orthop 2004; 420: 10-17.
26. Clohisy JC, Calvert G, Tull F, McDonald D, Maloney WJ. Reasons for revision hip surgery: a retrospective review. Clin Orthop 2004; 429: 188-192.
27. Lieberman IH, Moran E, Hasttings DE, Bogoch ER. Heterotopic ossification after primary cemented and non cemented total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Can J Surg 1994; 37: 135-139.
28. Visuri T, Pukkala E, Pulkkinen P, Paavolainen P. Decreased cancer risk in patients who have been operated on with total hip and knee arthroplasty for primary osteoarthrosis. Acta Orthop Scand 2003; 74: 351-360.
29. Kurtz S, Mowat F, Ong K et al. Prevalence of primary and revision total hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States from 1990 through 2002. J Bone Joint Surg 2005; 87A: 1487-1497.
30. Sharkness CM, Hamburger S, Moore RM Jr, Kaczmarek RG. Prevalence of artificial hip implants and use of health services by recipients. Publ Health Rep 1993; 108: 70-75.
31. Pagnano MW, McLamb LA, Trousdale RT. Primary and revision total hip arthroplasty for patients 90 years of age and older. Mayo Clin Proc 2003; 78: 285-288.
32. Ostendorf M, Johnell O, Malchau H, Dhert WJ et al. The epidemiology of total hip replacement in The Netherlands and Sweden: present status and future needs. Acta Orthop Scand 2002; 73: 282-286.
33. Wells VM, Hearn TC, McCaul KA et al. Changing incidence of primary total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis. J Arthroplasty 2002; 17: 267-273.
35. Milner PC, Payne JN, Stanfield RC et al. Inequalities in accessing hip joint replacement for people in need. Eur J Publ Health 2004; 14: 58-62.
36. Kim S, Koebel S, Duffy R. Cost burden of hip and knee replacements in Ohio: estimates from the National Hospital Discharge Survey, 2000. Managed Care Interface August 2004; 22-25.
37. Birkemeyer NJ, Weinstein JN. Medical vs. surgical treatment for low back pain: evidence and clinical practice. Eff Clin Pract 1999; 2(5): 218-227.
38. Deyo RA, Cherkin D, Conrad D et al. Cost, controversy, crisis: low back pain and the health of the public. Ann Rev Publ Health 1991; 12: 141-156.
39. Szpalski M, Gunzburg R, Mayer M. Spine arthroplasty: a historical review. Eur Spine J 2002; 11(suppl 2): S65-84.
40. Waddell G. Low back pain: a twentieth century healthcare enigma. Spine 1996; 21: 2820-2825.
41. NIH Conference - Osteoarthritis: new insights. Part 1: the disease and its risk factors. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133(8): 635-646.
42. Felson DT, Naimark A, Anderson J, Kazis L et al. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. The Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 914-918.
43. Bijkerk C, Houwing-Duistermaat JJ, Valkenburg HA et al. Heritabilities of radiologic osteoarthritis in peripheral joints and of disc degeneration of the spine. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42(8): 1729-1735.
44. Hassett G, Hart DJ, Manek NJ et al. Risk factors for progression of lumbar spine disc degeneration: the Chingford study. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48(11): 1312-1317.
45. Deyo RA, Bass JE. Lifestyle and low back pain. The influence of smoking and obesity. Spine 1989; 14(5): 501-506.
46. Frymoyer JW, Pope MH, Clements JH. Risk factors in low back pain. An epidemiological survey. J Bone Joint Surg 1983; 65(2): 213-218.
48. Fujiwara A, Lim T-H, An HS et al. The effect of disc degeneration and facet joint osteoarthritis on the segmental flexibility of the lumbar spine. Spine 2000; 25(23): 3036-3044.
49. O'Neill TW, McCloskey EV, Kanis JA et al. The distribution, determinants, and clinical correlates of vertebral osteophytosis: a population-based survey. J Rheumatol 1999; 26(4): 842-848.
50. Yoshimura N, Dennison E, Wilman C et al. Epidemiology of chronic disc degeneration and osteoarthritis of the lumbar spine in Britain and Japan: a comparative study. J Rheumatol 2000; 27(2): 429-433.
51. Williams KD, Park AL. Lower back pain and disorders of intervertebral discs. In Canale ST (ed.), Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, vol 2, 10th edn. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2003; 2016-2028.
52. Kozak JA, O'Brien JP. Simultaneous combined anterior and posterior fusion. An independent analysis of a treatment for the disabled low-back pain patient. Spine 1990; 15(4): 322-328.
53. Linson MA, Williams H. Anterior and combined anteroposterior fusion for lumbar disc pain. A preliminary study. Spine 1991; 16: 143-145.
54. Moore KR, Pinto MR, Butler LM. Degenerative disc disease treated with combined anterior and posterior arthrodesis and posterior instrumentation. Spine 2002; 27: 1680-1686.
55. Penta M, Fraser RD. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion. A minimum 10-year follow-up. Spine 1997; 22: 2429-2434.
56. Tropiano P, Huang RC, Girardi FP et al. Lumbar total disc replacement. Seven to eleven-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87A(3): 490-496.
57. Turner JA, Ersek M, Herron L et al. Patient outcomes after lumbar spinal fusions. J Am Med Assoc 1992; 268: 907-11.
58. Gamradt SC, Wang JC. Lumbar disc arthroplasty. Spine J 2005; 5(1): 95-103.
59. de Kleuver M, Oner FC, Jacobs WCH. Total disc replacement for chronic low back pain: background and a systematic review of the literature. Eur Spine J 2003; 12: 108-116.
60. Puolakka TJ, Pajamaki KJ, Halonen PF et al. The Finnish Arthroplasty Register: report of the hip register. Act Orthop Scand 2001; 72: 433-441.
61. Gibson JNA, Grant IC, Waddell G. The Cochrane review of surgery for lumbar disc prolapse and degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Spine 1999; 24(17): 1820-1832.
62. Zeegers WS, Bohnen LMLJ, Laaper M, Verhaegen MJA. Artificial disc replacement with modular type SB Charite III: 2-year results in 50 prospectively studied patients. Eur Spine J 1999; 8: 210-17.
63. van Olij A, Oner FC, Verbout AJ. Complications of artificial disc replacement: a report of 27 patients with SB Charite disc. J Spinal Disord Tech 2003; 16(4): 369-383.
64. Hallab N, Merritt K, Jacobs JJ. Metal sensitivity in patients with orthopaedic implants. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83A(3): 428-436.
65. Merritt K, Rodrigo JJ. Immune response to synthetic materials. Sensitization of patients receiving orthopedic implants. Clin Orthop 1996; 326: 71-79.
66. Hallab N, Link HD, McAfee PC. Biomaterial optimization in total disc arthroplasty. Spine 2003; 28(20S): S139-152.
67. Olsen JH, McLaughlin JK, Nyren O et al. Hip and knee implantations among patients with osteoarthritis and risk of cancer: a record-linkage study from Denmark. Int J Cancer 1999; 81(5): 719-722.
68. Signorello LB, Ye W, Fryzek JP et al. Nationwide study of cancer risk among hip replacement patients in Sweden. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93(18): 1405-1410.
69. Wang, JC, Shapiro MS, Hatch JD. The outcome of lumbar discectomy in elite athletes. Spine 1999; 24: 570-573.
70. Silvers HR, Lewis PJ, Asch HL et al. Lumbar microdiscectomy in the elderly patient. Br J Neurosurg 1997; 11: 16-24.
71. Cinotti G, David T, Postacchini F. Results of disc prosthesis after minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Spine 1996; 21: 995-1000.
72. Cihangiroglu M, Yildurum H, Bozgeyik Z et al. Observer variability based on the strength of MR scanners in the assessment of lumbar degenerative disc disease. Eur J Radiol 2004; 51(3): 202-208.
73. Modic TM. Degenerative disc disease and back pain. Magn Reson Imag Clin NAm 1999; 7(3): 481-491.
74. Resnick DK, Malone DG, Ryken TC. Guidelines for the use of discography for the diagnosis of painful degenerative lumbar disease. Neurosurg Focus 2002; 13(2):1-9.
75. Griffith SL, Shelokov AP, Buttner-Janz K et al.. A multicenter retrospective study of the clinical results of the LINK SB Charite intervertebral prosthesis. The initial European experience. Spine 1994; 19: 1842-1849.
76. Lemaire JP, Skalli W, Lavaste F et al. Intervertebral disc prosthesis. Results and prospects for the year 2000. Clin Orthop 1997; 337: 64-76.
77. Baker JK, ReardonPR, ReardonMJ etal. Vascular injury in anterior lumbar surgery. Spine 1993; 18(15): 2227-2230.
78. Bingol H, Cingoz F, Yilmaz AT et al. Vascular complications related to lumbar disc surgery. J Neurosurg 2004; 100: 249-253.
79. Wiese M, Kramer J, Bernsmann K et al. The related outcome and complication rate in primary lumbar microscopic disc surgery depending on the surgeon's experience: comparative studies. Spine J 2004; 4(5): 550-556.
80. Geisler FH, Blumenthal SL, Guyer RD et al. Neurological complications of lumbar artificial disc replacement and comparison of clinical results with those related to lumbar arthrodesis in the literature: results of a multicenter, prospective, randomized investigational device exemption study of Charite; intervertebral disc. J Neurosurg Spine 2004; 1(2): 143-154.
81. Torrence ME. Data sources: use in the epidemiologic study of medical devices. Epidemiology 2002; 13: S10-S14.
Was this article helpful?