Although many have reported the hospital mortality associated with ARDS, there has only been one study that specifically investigated the effects of ARDS on long-term survival compared with a control group. Davidson and colleagues conducted a prospective, matched parallel cohort study following 127 survivors of ARDS related to trauma or sepsis, and 127 control survivors with sepsis or trauma without ARDS . The control group was matched for severity of illness, using the Injury Severity Score for trauma patients, and the APACHE III score for those with sepsis. The median follow-up period for both subjects and controls was 753 days. This study found no difference in long-term mortality between the ARDS survivors and their matched controls (Fig. 3). Survival in both groups was correlated most significantly with risk factor, with a 3% late mortality in the trauma
group compared to 22% in sepsis. Increased age and serious comorbidities in the sepsis patients were also associated with increased late mortality.
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