Pressure support ventilation (PSV) was introduced into clinical practice in the early 1980s [1, 2], and it quickly became the most commonly used partial ventilatory support technique in intensive care units (ICUs) [3]. Originally devised to improve patient-ventilator interaction and comfort over other popular ventilatory modes such as assist-control ventilation or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) [2,3], PSV gained its popularity as a weaning technique. Although PSV probably still finds its main application in weaning, growing attention is being paid to the use ofPSV as a stand-alone major ventilatory mode in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). After a short general introduction, we will discuss some recent aspects of PSV use in patients with ALI/ARDS.

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