Contents

Epidemiology

The Importance of Acute Respiratory Failure in the ICU S

Y. Sakr and J.L. Vincent

The Epidemiology of Mechanical Ventilation 11

F. Frutos-Vivar, N.D. Ferguson, and A. Esteban

Long-term Outcomes of Mechanical Ventilation 29

Understanding and Changing the Practice of Mechanical Ventilation in the Community 47

G.D. Rubenfeld

Patient-ventilator Interactions, Weaning, and Monitoring

Control of Breathing During Mechanical Ventilation 63

M. Younes

Patient-ventilator Interactions S3

S. Parthasarathy and M.J. Tobin

Physiological Rationale for Ventilation of Patients with Obstructive Diseases 97

J. Mancebo

Role of the Clinician in Adjusting Ventilator Parameters

During Assisted Ventilation 113

L. Brochard

Neurally-adjusted Ventilatory Assist 125

VI Contents

Liberating Patients from Mechanical Ventilation:

What Have we Learned About Protocolizing Care? 135

J.W.W. Thomason andE.W. Ely

Novel Approaches to Monitoring Mechanical Ventilatory Support 153

N. MacIntyre

Non-invasive Ventilation

Indications for Non-invasive Ventilation 171

Non-invasive Ventilation: Causes of Success or Failure 189

S. Nava and P. Ceriana

Non-invasive Ventilation in Immunocompromised Patients. . . 201 M. Antonelli, M.A. Pennisi, and G. Conti

ARDS/VILI: Mechanisms

Biophysical Factors Leading to VILI 213

Vascular Contribution to VILI 227

VILI: Physiological Evidence 243

Systemic Effects of Mechanical Ventilation 259

Y. Imai and A.S. Slutsky

ARDS/VILI: Assessment

Chest Wall Mechanics in ARDS 275

L. Gattinoni, D. Chiumello, and P. Pelosi

Targets in Mechanical Ventilation for ARDS 287

B.P. Kavanagh

How to Detect VILI at the Bedside? 301

Lung Morphology in ARDS: How it Impacts Therapy 319

ARDS/VILI: Therapy

Recruitment Maneuvers in ARDS 335

Spontaneous Breathing During Ventilatory Support in Patients with ARDS 353

C. Putensen, R. Hering, and H. Wrigge

Pressure-support Ventilation in Patients with ALI/ARDS . ... 367 N. Patroniti, B. Cortinovis, and A. Pesenti

Prone Ventilation 381

R.K. Albert

Adjuncts to Mechanical Ventilation for ARDS including Biological Variability 389

R.M. Kacmarek

Summary of Clinical Trials of Mechanical Ventilation in ARDS . 405 R.G. Browerand G.D. Rubenfeld

Subject Index

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