Real Masculinity and Manhood

Core: How To Connect With Your Masculine Energy

Most men feel stuck in life, empty, and unhappy despite having a lot of wealth, good job, fame, and several conquests with the opposite sex. These men experience these problems because they lack the mature masculine energy. In fact, this is the reason why most men who seem to have it all sometimes decide to take their own life. Fortunately, someone has decided to provide a solution. David Tian is a Ph.D. holder in psychology. In his course known as the CORE, he reveals various ways any man can reach the ultimate masculinity and achieve true joy, happiness, and live a more fulfilling life. The Core comes with 8 video seminars, downloadable meditative audio exercises, PDF slides, worksheets, and 3 free bonuses. Currently, you can be able to purchase this course at a discount price. Read more...

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Using the masters tools early attempts to address androcentrism

Karen Horney, born a year after Deutsch and thirty years after Freud, broke with classical psychoanalytic tradition by proposing what she termed a holisticview of the person in which individual constitution and the environment interacted reciprocally. She critically examined Freud's theories on women, expressing the view that because civilization is dominated by men, the psychology of women had evolved from a masculine point of view and that women were unfairly and inaccurately being evaluated according to male standards and points of view. Horney (1967, originally published in 1935) insisted on rigorous examination of behavioral data across cultures as a standard for generating theory about women's psychology. She pointed to cultural factors as contributors to such concepts as female masochism and noted that these ideologies which attribute the cultural experiences of women to biology Clara Thompson, born in 1893 in Rhode Island, was strongly influenced by Horney. Thompson criticized...

Feminist Contributions to Science

Feminist science centralizes the female experience. Although gender tends to be used as a template for understanding oppressions, feminist science attempts to step into the experiences and worlds of those whose lives we study and to centralize the salient aspects of their experience as the lens through which those experiences are viewed. Feminist theorists attempt to centralize and validate instead of marginalizing the experiences of those who have traditionally been silenced. As opposed to having its roots in the masculinity crisis of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the roots of feminist psychology have emerged largely from the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s.

The Cognitive Developmental Perspective

Both identification (i.e., psychoanalytic) and learning (i.e., social learning, cognitive developmental, gender schema) theories describe how boys and girls identify with or take on the characteristics of maleness (or masculinity) and femaleness (femininity). Both perspectives articulate differences between females and males, although such differences are attributed to different causal mechanisms. While the former holds that these differences are distinct and enduring, thus essential, the latter shows that sex-related behaviors can be shaped, modified, and extinguished.

Distancing from Women

Allport (1954, cited in Lott & Maluso, 1995) described discriminatory behavior as existing on a continuum ranging from avoidance to active exclusion to violent attack. Lott (1995, 1996) conceptualizes sexism as having as its purpose the distancing from, avoidance of, or exclusion of women. In fact, the definition of manhood in sexist societies seems, by implication, to include the requirement that they distance from and exclude women (Lott, 1995). In our exploration of the phenomenon of sexism, we will now turn to the ways in which men distance from and exclude women.

Fetal Hormones Affecting Adult Behavior

Rat and mouse fetuses have several litter-mates, which develop side by side in a common uterus, like peas in a pod. Male mice that develop between two male embryos are more aggressive as adults than males developing between females. Similarly, females that develop between two male embryos are more aggressive as adults than females that develop between other females. In another study, females from litters that were predominantly male showed more masculine behavior (such as the mounting of other females) than females from predominantly female litters. The explanation is that testosterone produced by the male embryos' testes is absorbed into the bloodstream of sibling embryos, altering their nervous systems and hence their behaviors. In cattle, testosterone produced by a bull calf twin affects the development of his heifer twin to the extent that she is usually sterile.

Individuating Job Applicants

We have seen that women's access to nontraditional occupations may be compromised by hiring biases that disadvantage gender-incongruent candidates. To directly counter the tendency to prefer men for masculine and women for feminine jobs, individuating information is helpful (but not fully compensatory). For example, Peter Glick and his colleagues (1988) masculinized'the fictitious resumes of female and male applicants by giving them summer jobs in a sports store (as opposed to a feminine jewelry store), a work-study job in grounds maintenance (vs. aerobics instructor), and captain of the varsity basketball team (vs. pep squad). They found that masculinizing information about female candidates for a position in sales management in a heavy machinery company enhanced their likelihood of being interviewed, although being male was an even stronger predictor (also see Branscombe & Smith, 1990). In general, candidates who seem to mesh with the gender orientation of a job are considered...

Androgens Have Effects on Reproductive and Nonreproductive Tissues

Most every tissue, including alteration of the primary sex structures (i.e., the testes and genital tract) and stimulation of the secondary sex structures (i.e., accessory glands) and development of secondary sex characteristics responsible for masculine phenotypic expression. Androgens also affect both sexual and nonsexual behavior. The relative potency ranking of androgens is DHT > testosterone > an-drostenedione > DHEA. The action of sex steroid hormones on somatic tissue, such as muscle, is referred to as anabolic because the end result is increased muscle size. This action is mediated by the same molecular mechanisms that result in virilization.

The Gynocentric Perspective

The gynocentric view of gender identity development posits that a feminine, rather than a bisexual or masculine orientation, predominates a child's perspective throughout development and that this perspective is evident prior to the phallic stage. Gynocentric theorists, like phallo-centric theorists, posit that a child's primary interest from birth is the mother. The mother satisfies the child's needs and desires and thus becomes an object of affection. Unlike phallocen-tric theorists, however, gynocentric theorists consider female identity development as the standard for normative development rather than merely a derivative of masculine identity development. Also, the role of the mother rather than that of the father is emphasized in development. In her later writings, Deutsch (1944 45) posited that, because of her close attachment and identification with the primary caregiver mother, the girl child must go through a process of affiliation to and differentiation from the mother...

The Meaning Of Gender

Historically, masculinity and femininity had been considered mutually exclusive, bipolar constructs that represented attitudes, behaviors, and personality dimensions of individuals. Early research attempted to identify specific characteristics, or attributes, of masculinity and femininity that could be measured. Early measures of these characteristics conceptualized masculinity and femininity as polar, stable, and enduring traits that could be inferred through self-identification of sex-stereotyped adjectives (Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975). These measures focused on the traits of instrumentality and expressiveness as indicators of masculinity and femininity, respectively. Masculinity and femininity have also been conceived of as complementary traits, behaviors, and attitudes (Bem, 1974). How an individual self-describes him- or herself according to these traits indicates his or her degree of sex-typing, that is, how strictly the individual has internalized social standards for...

Social Constructionism

Derstand the role of status, dominance and submission, and power in relation to gender, particularly as we examine the research on gendered behavior. It has been found, for example, that women's and men's gendered behavior changes based on context, such as when women in leadership positions exercise more typically masculineforms of power, or when a single fathers exhibit motheringbehaviors. From a social constructionist perspective, we are also able to examine the complexities of status, stigma, and the power of social forces to control women who deviate from their expected roles and behaviors (Bohan, 1997 Unger & Crawford, 1996).

Feminist Critiques of Science

Masculinity has powerfully influenced science, according to Benjamin (1993), Furumoto (1998), Keller (1992), and others. Psychology as a science emerged during acrisis of masculinity (Furumoto, p. 72) in which social roles were shifting and a new idea of masculinity was emerging. Feminist theorists (Gergen, 1988 Hubbard, 1988) have implicated science as essentially masculine, including its basic ontological structure, its emphasis on objectivity, the invisibility of the researcher and her or his social context, its tendency toward context-stripping, and its apolitical stance. The basic ontological structure or orienting assumptions of science represent those historical masculine perspectives described earlier that are psychology's heritage from the turn of the twentieth century. These assumptions frame the categories of subsequent understanding, the kinds of questions toward which research can be directed, and the kinds of answers that can be derived (Gergen, 1988). Ontology dictates...

Hypogonadism Can Result From Defects at Several Levels

Male hypogonadism may result from defects in spermato-genesis, steroidogenesis, or both. It may be a primary defect in the testes or secondary to hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, and determining whether the onset of gonadal failure occurred before or after puberty is important in establishing the cause. However, several factors must be considered. First, normal spermatogenesis almost never occurs with defective steroidogenesis, but normal steroidogenesis can be present with defective spermatogenesis. Second, primary testicular failure removes feedback inhibition from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, resulting in elevated plasma gonadotropins. In contrast, hypothalamic and or pituitary failure is almost always accompanied by decreased gonadotropin and steroid levels and reduced testicular size. Third, gonadal failure before puberty results in the absence of secondary sex characteristics, creating a distinctive clinical presentation called eunuchoidism. In contrast, men with a...

Hormones And Behavior

Androgens masculinizing hormones, such as testosterone, responsible for male secondary (anatomical) sex characteristics and masculine behavior behavior an animal's movements, choices, and interactions with other animals and its environment biological clock a timekeeping mechanism that is endogenous (a part of the animal) and capable of running independently of exogenous timers such as day-night cycles or seasons, although the clock is normally set by them endocrine system a collection of glands that secrete their products into the bloodstream

Gerontologic Alert

With long-term administration, the female patient may experience mild to moderate masculine changes (virilization), namely facial hair, a deepening of the voice, and enlargement of the clitoris. Male pattern baldness, patchy hair loss, skin pigmentation, and acne may also be seen. Although these adverse effects are not life threatening, they often are distressing and only add to the patient's discomfort and anxiety. These problems may be easy to identify, but they are not always easy to solve. If hair loss occurs, the nurse can suggest the wearing of a wig. The nurse advises the patient that mild skin pigmentation may be covered with makeup, but severe and widespread pigmented areas and acne are often difficult to conceal. Each patient is different, and the emotional responses to these outward changes may range from severe depression to a positive attitude and acceptance. The nurse works with the patient as an individual, first identifying the problems, and then helping the patient,...

Physiological Side Effects of Cellular Implants

Capacities of aged rats following implantation of fetal septal brain grafts in the hippocampus (Gage et al. 1984), ii) the increase in masculine and feminine sexual behaviour of female rats following neonatal implantation of male preoptic brain tissue (Arendash and Gorski 1982) and iii) the change in circadian rhythm by rat inter-species grafting of the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (the biological clock of the brain Ralph et al. 1990).

Complicated sexism

Race, class, gender, and sexuality are contextual for each other. These contexts are used to construct different meanings of masculinity and femininity throughout history for different social groups through social processes that produce and help maintain racialized, class-bound, heterosexist environments (Weber, 1998). The dominant culture defines the categories within race, gender, and sexuality as polar opposites (for instance, white and black or nonwhite , men and women, heterosexual and homosexual) to create social rankings good and bad, worthy and unworthy, right and wrong (Lorber, 1994, as cited in Weber, 1998). It also links these concepts to biology to imply that the rankings are fixed, permanent, and embedded in nature. Thus, race, gender, and sexuality are defined as ranked dichotomies with whites, men, and heterosexuals assumed to be superior. Since race, gender, and sexuality are social constructs that create contexts for each other, their interaction in an individual's...

Hormones

Other areas are quite sensitive to androgens. In these locations hair follicles are terminalized even in the presence of relatively low levels of androgens. Such areas include the pubic area and the axilla, which begin to develop terminal hair even in early puberty when only minimally increased amounts of androgens are observed. Finally, some areas of skin respond only to high levels of androgens. These sites include the chest, abdomen, back, thighs, upper arms, and face. The presence of terminal hairs in these areas is characteristically masculine, and if present in women is considered pathological, i. e., hirsutism.

Occupational Choice

This promises that women doing men's work will have to work harder and be more capable than their male co-workers (Pugh & Wahrman, 1983). Stereotypes of leadership encourage men to emerge as the leaders of leaderless groups, suggesting that women who aspire to leader roles must overcome much bias (Eagly & Karau, 1991). In fact, this preference for male leaders translates into a view of thinkmanager, think male (Schein, Mueller, Lituchy, & Lui, 1996). Hiring biases are documented such that business professionals prefer women for feminine jobs and men for masculine ones (Branscombe & Smith, 1990 Glick, Zion, & Nelson, 1988) and evaluate gender-congruent candidates as stronger applicants (Towson, Zanna, & MacDonald, 1989). These patterns predict problems for women seeking to access male-dominated occupations. Finally, evidence of glass ceilings and concrete walls suggests that promotion opportunities open to women and men of color will...

Brief History

Life passed before me'' (1879, p. 151). He then moved from the real world'' into the laboratory. Galton produced sheets of paper, each with one word on it, waited a few days, placed a sheet with a word on it partially under a book so that it was blocked from view until he would lean forward to see it. He recorded his associations and his reaction times to 75 words on four occasions. It was a most repugnant and laborious work'' (1879, p. 153). Of the 124 different associations he obtained, 48 were from boyhood and youth,'' 57 were from subsequent manhood,'' and 19 were from quite recent events.''

Social Development

What is considered typical or acceptable behavior for males and females seems to change with each succeeding generation. Some types of behaviors are labeled feminine or masculine, but the gender roles the values, traits, and social motives thought to be appropriate for males and females vary considerably with cultural and environmental conditions. Much of the development of gender roles appears to be a function of others in the child's environment.

Hiring Practices

For women to access male-dominated occupations (and men to enter female-dominated ones), employers need to scrutinize and monitor their hiring practices. Bernice Lott (1985) concluded that women's competence is most likely to be devalued when little is know about the candidate by the evaluator, when the evaluation is real (as opposed to a laboratory simulation), and when the evaluator's decision has consequences for her or him. Such a combination of factors frequently describes job hiring. This trend can be countered by providing more individuating information about candidates, especially if it masculinizeswomen applying for masculine jobs (Glick, Zion, & Nelson, 1988). The inclusion of evaluators not directly affected by the hiring decision would work to offset the final tendency noted by Lott.

Onthejob Supports

Organizations can work to empower individuals. For example, followers' evaluations of a leader's effectiveness were influenced more by their perceptions of the leader's power than by the leader's gender (Ragins, 1991). One way that organizations can empower women is to legitimate their expertise. In a laboratory simulation conducted with my students, we appointed a woman to lead an all-male group on a masculine task, giving her position power (Yoder, Schleicher, & McDonald, 1998). In the control condition, this is all we did. In a second condition, we trained the woman leader by giving her task-relevant information. In a third condition, we trained the woman and legitimated her expertise to the group by telling followers of her specialized knowledge. We found that groups led by our trained-only leader did no better than the controls, ignoring the information offered by the woman leader. In contrast, the legitimated, trained leaders' groups outscored the controls. This suggests that...

Sexuality

Sexuality does and should continue to be an important part of life for people with MS. Sexuality affects your basic feelings of self-esteem and your views of yourself as masculine or feminine. It provides pleasure and relaxation, and it is an important aspect of relationships with a spouse or significant other because sharing a sexual life strengthens the attachment between partners.

Watch Your Language

The language we use to describe people and things, including workers and occupations, can influence how we think about them (Whorf, 1956). For example, Janet Hyde (1984) described the fictional j ob of wudgemaking to elementary school children. One-quarter of the children heard wudgemakers described using masculine pronouns (he, his) others heard feminine pronouns (she, her) and the remaining children heard gender-inclusive (he or she) or gender-neutral (they) language. Children thought men would make good wudgemakers regardless of the pronoun used. In contrast, the pronoun affected their projections for women. Both girls and boys who heard wudgemakers described with he evaluated women as just OK' potential wudgemakers. Children's ratings of women wudgemakers became more positive in response to both gender-neutral (they) and gender-inclusive (he or she) versions. Women were considered the best at wudgemaking when the description used the female-specific pronoun she. These data lead me...

Testing Theories

Beyond what is necessary in copulation and childbirth, much of sex-specific behavior in humans is culturally defined and may differ from one society to another. This includes the norms of what behavior is appropriate (or inappropriate) for each sex and what personal qualities are considered masculine or feminine. All attempts to redefine sex roles will lead nowhere, unless one is aware of both the biological and the social underpinnings of these roles.

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