Sources for Further Study

Bell, Adrian D. Plant Form: An Illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant Morphology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Discusses the broad variety of morphological features of flowers. Illustrations, bibliographical references, index.

Lloyd, David G., and Spencer C. H. Barrett, eds. Floral Biology: Studies on Floral Evolution in Animal-Pollinated Plants. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1996. Focuses on the synthesis of pollination biology and plant mating systems which is rejuvenating floral biology. Illustrations, bibliographical references, indexes.

Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert, and Susan E. Eichhorn. Biology of Plants. 6th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1999. This basic textbook presents floral structure with ample pictures and diagrams; covers flower evolution and the interplay between floral structure and pollinators.

Rudall, Paula. Anatomy of Flowering Plants: An Introduction to Structure and Development. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. This basic text focuses exclusively on angiosperm anatomy and physiology.

Russell, Sharman Apt. Anatomy of a Rose: Exploring the Secret Life of Flowers. New York: Perseus, 2001. Whimsical but scientifically sound discussion of how flowers—their colors, shapes, and scents—serve the sole purpose of sexual reproduction. What registers with human senses, however, may be completely different from what attracts bees and other pollinators.

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