As fresh water evaporates from irrigated fields over time, a residue of salt is left behind. The process, called salinization, results in a gradual decline in soil productivity and can eventually render fields unsuitable for agricultural use. Correcting saline soils is not a simple process. In principle, large amounts of water can be used to leach salt away from the soil. In practice, however, the amount of water required is seldom available, and if it is used, it may waterlog the soil. Also, the leached salt usually pollutes groundwater or streams. One way to deal with salinization is to use genetically selected crops adapted to salinized soils.
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