Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation uses plant roots to clean polluted soil and water. They can remove, by endo-cytosis, and degrade both small organic molecular pollutants (ammunition wastes, chlorinated solvents, and herbicides) and large organic molecular pollutants (crude oil and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in the environment. The degraded products can then be incorporated in the plant's tissues.

Domingo M. Jariel

See also: Active transport; Cell wall; Cells and diffusion; Cytosol; Endomembrane system and Golgi complex; Membrane structure; Microbodies; Osmosis, simple diffusion, and facilitated diffusion; Peroxisomes; Plasma membranes; Vacuoles; Vesicle-mediated transport.

Sources for Further Study

Gunning, Brian E. S., and Martin W. Steer. Plant Cell Biology: Structure and Function. Rev. ed. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett, 2000. Text integrates microscopy with plant cell and molecular biology. Includes more than four hundred micrographs and four pages of full-color plates.

Hay, Robert K. M., and Alastair H. Fitter. Environmental Physiology of Plants. 3d ed. New York: Academic Press, 1987. College-level text covers newer molecular approaches which can be used to solve problems in physiology, global change, toxicity, and more. Illustrations include color plates.

Hopkins, William G. G. Introduction to Plant Physiology. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. Uses interactions between the plant and the environment as a foundation for developing plant physiology principles. Covers the role of plants in specific ecosystems, global ecology, cells, plant growth regulators, and biochemistry. Each chapter is illustrated.

Lee, A. G. Endocytosis and Exocytosis. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1996. Part of the biomembranes series, covers endocytosis, exocytosis, and related processes. Includes references, index.

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