Categories: Evolution; genetics
The Hardy-Weinberg theorem is the principal that, in the absence of external pressures for change, the genetic makeup of an ideal population of randomly mating, sexually reproducing diploid organisms will remain the same, at what is called Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Population genetics is the branch of genetics that studies the behavior of genes in populations. The two main subfields of population genetics are theoretical (or mathematical) population genetics, which uses formal analysis of the properties of ideal populations, and experimental population genetics, which examines the behavior of real genes in natural or laboratory populations.
Population genetics began as an attempt to extend Gregor Mendel's laws of inheritance to populations. In 1908 Godfrey H. Hardy, an English mathematician, and Wilhelm Weinberg, a German physician, each independently derived a description of the behavior of allele and genotype frequencies in an ideal population of randomly mating, sexually reproducing diploid organisms. Their results, now termed the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, showed that the pattern of allele and genotype frequencies in such a population followed simple rules. They also showed that, in the absence of external pressures for change, the genetic makeup of a population will remain at an equilibrium.
Because evolution is change in a population over time, such a population is not evolving. Modern evolutionary theory is an outgrowth of the "New Synthesis" of R. A. Fisher, J. B. S. Haldane, and Sewell Wright, which was developed in the 1930's. They examined the significance of various factors that cause evolution by examining the degree to which they cause deviations from the predictions of the Hardy-Weinberg theorem.
Predictions
The predictions of the Hardy-Weinberg theorem hold if the following assumptions are true:
(1) The population is infinitely large.
(2) There is no gene flow (movement of genes into or out of the population by migration of gametes or individuals).
(3) There is no mutation (no new alleles are added to the population by mutation).
(4) There is random mating (all genotypes have an equal chance of mating with all other genotypes).
(5) All genotypes are equally fit (have an equal chance of surviving to reproduce).
Under this very restricted set of assumptions, the following two predictions are true:
(1) Allele frequencies will not change from one generation to the next.
(2) Genotype frequencies can be determined by a simple equation and will not change from one generation to the next.
The predictions of the Hardy-Weinberg theorem represent the working through of a simple set of algebraic equations and can be easily extended to more than two alleles of a gene. In fact, the results were so self-evident to the mathematician Hardy that he, at first, did not think the work was worth publishing.
If there are two alleles (A, a) for a gene present in the gene pool (all of the genes in all of the individuals of a population), let p = the frequency of the A allele and q = the frequency of the a allele. As an example, if p = 0.4 (40 percent) and q = 0.6 (60 percent), then p + q = 1, since the two alleles are the only ones present, and the sum of the frequencies (or proportions) of all the alleles in a gene pool must equal one (or 100 percent). The Hardy-Weinberg theorem states that at equilibrium the frequency of AA individuals will be p2 (equal to 0.16 in this example), the frequency of Aa individuals will be 2pq, or 0.48, and the frequency of aa individuals will be q2, or 0.36.
The basis of this equilibrium is that the individuals of one generation give rise to the next generation. Each diploid individual produces haploid gametes. An individual of genotype AA can make only a single type of gamete, carrying the A allele. Similarly, an individual of genotype aa can make only a gametes. An Aa individual, however, can make two types of gametes, A and a, with equal probability. Each individual makes an equal contribution of gametes, as all individuals are equally fit, and there is random mating. Each AA individual will contribute twice as many A gametes as each Aa individual. The frequency of A gametes is equal to the frequency of A alleles in the gene pool of the parents.
The next generation is formed by gametes pairing at random (independent of the allele they carry). The likelihood of an egg joining with a sperm is the frequency of one multiplied by the frequency of the other. AA individuals are formed when an A sperm joins an A egg; the likelihood of this occurrence is p x p = p2 (that is, 0.4 x 0.4 = 0.16 in the first example). In the same fashion, the likelihood of forming an aa individual is q2 = 0.36. The likelihood of an A egg joining an a sperm is pq, as is the likelihood of an a egg joining an A sperm; therefore, the total likelihood of forming an Aa individual is 2pq = 0.48. If one now calculates the allele frequencies (and hence the frequencies of the gamete types) for this generation, they are the same as before: The frequency of the A allele is p = (2p2 + 2pq)/2 (in the ex ample (0.32 + 0.48)^2 = 0.4), and the frequency of the a allele is q = (1 - p) = 0.6. The population remains at equilibrium, and neither allele nor genotype frequencies change from one generation to the next.
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