In 1938, Congress passed this law that gave the FDA control over the manufacture and sale of drugs, food, and cosmetics. Before the passage of this act, some drugs, as well as foods and cosmetics, contained chemicals that were often harmful to humans. This law requires that these substances are safe for human use. It also requires pharmaceutical companies to perform
Gradual accumulation of mutations over long periods of time results in new biological species, each with a unique DNA sequence. At the top is shown a short segment of a gene in a hypothetical progenitor organism. With the passage of time, changes in nucleotide sequence (mutations, indicated here by colored boxes), occurring one nucleotide at a time, result in progeny with different DNA sequences. These mutant progeny also undergo occasional mutations, yielding their own progeny that differ by two or more nucleotides from the progenitor sequence. When two lineages have diverged so much in their genetic makeup that they can no longer interbreed, a new species has been created. gradual accumulation of mutations over long periods of time results in new biological species, each with a unique DNA sequence. At the top is shown a short segment of a gene in a hypothetical progenitor organism. With the passage of time, changes in nucleotide sequence (mutations, indicated here by colored boxes),...
Many industries are involved, such as forestry, agriculture, chemicals, food, flavor, beverage, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and fragrance. The plant raw materials are roots, rhizomes, bulbs, leaves, stems, barks, wood, flowers, fruits, and seeds. These yield gums, resins, essential (volatile) oils, fixed oils, waxes, juices, extracts, and spices for medicinal and aromatic purposes. All these commodities are traded worldwide. A dealer's market report for an item may say drought in the country of origin has forced up prices.
Some new terms should be introduced at this point. Phenotype refers to what can be seen, whereas genotype refers to actual genetic makeup. Consequently, RR and Rr are phenotypically the same because round seededness is a dominant trait, but they are genotypically different. The RR form is said to be homozygous (composed of two of the same type of genes) and the Rr form heterozygous (composed of two different kinds of genes).
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful separation technique. It is especially useful for separation of ionic compounds and chiral mixtures. Mass spectrometry has been coupled with CE to provide a powerful platform for separation and detection of complex mixtures such as combinatorial libraries. However, the full potential of CE in the application of routine analysis of samples has yet to be realized. This is in part due to perceived difficulty in the use of the CE technique compared to the more mature techniques of HPLC and even SFC. Dunayevskiy et al. 136 analyzed a library of 171 theoretically disubstituted xanthene derivatives with a CE ESI-MS system. The method allowed the purity and makeup of the library to be determined 160 of the expected compounds were found to be present, and 12 side products were also detected in the mixture. Due to the ability of CE to separate analytes on the basis of charge, most of the xanthene derivatives could be resolved by simple CE-MS...
Algin, which occurs in the cell walls of brown algae, is widely used in industry as an emulsifying agent and a stabilizer. It is used to create smooth body and texture in ice cream to prevent the coarsening of ice cream in storage in the preparation of jellies, icings, and whipping cream in the manufacture of chocolate milk as a creaming agent in the manufacture of rubber as a dental impression material in the sizing of cloth in paints, cosmetics, hand lotions, lubricating jellies, printing ink, fire retardant compounds, insecticides, and varnishes and to finish leather, among other uses
Caution should be taken when interpreting in vitro results for the purpose of extrapolation to the in vivo situation. Cultured cells generally have a life cycle and cellular makeup that is different from the cells in their natural environment in vivo. In the organs in the body, ECs are strongly influenced by their local environment. Furthermore, blood flow-induced shear stress and continuous interaction with blood-derived cellular and soluble components are continuously sensed by the capillary endothelium. These conditions strongly affect EC behavior (108-110), yet cannot be easily mimicked in in vitro cell culture systems. For this reason, the final experiments studying the pharmacological effects of the delivered drugs should be performed in animal models of disease.
Figure 3 Measurement of in vivo pharmacological effects of drugs selectively delivered into activated ECs using immunoliposomes can be performed by laser microdissection followed by real-time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By this means microvascular ECs from different origins can be isolated from their pathophysiological (snap frozen) tissue biopsies without disturbing their original gene expression makeup. Endothelial RNA isolated from the dissected material is subsequently subjected to quantitative RT-PCR analysis for relevant genes to enable gene expression profiling studies. Figure 3 Measurement of in vivo pharmacological effects of drugs selectively delivered into activated ECs using immunoliposomes can be performed by laser microdissection followed by real-time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By this means microvascular ECs from different origins can be isolated from their pathophysiological (snap frozen) tissue biopsies without disturbing their original gene...
Knowing the genomes of A. gambiae and P. falciparum has provided insights into the genetic makeup of insects and how they have co-evolved with the parasites they transmit to humans. But the genomes of the anopheline mosquitoes that carry malaria, such as A. gam-biae, differ significantly from those of the culicine mosquitoes, which are the major transmitters of the other diseases mentioned above. Comparative investigations of the evolution of insect genomes, as well as the genomes of the parasites they carry, will be needed in our efforts to combat all of these debilitating diseases.
The Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium is one of the foundations of mathematical population genetics. A description of the genetic makeup of a population under ideal conditions, it acts as a benchmark against which the effects of natural selection or other evolutionary forces can be measured. Population genetics began as an attempt to extend Mendel's laws of inheritance to populations. In 1908, Godfrey H. Hardy, an English mathematician, and Wilhelm Weinberg, a German physician, each independently derived a description of the behavior of allele and genotype frequencies in an ideal population of sexually reproducing diploid organisms. Their results, now termed the Hardy-Weinberg principle, or Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, showed that the pattern of allele and genotype frequencies in such a population followed simple rules. They also showed that, in the absence of external pressures for change, the genetic makeup of a population will remain the same, at an equilibrium. Since...
The study of human origins has social, intellectual, religious, and philosophical implications. The fact that humans are all one subspecies, with a remarkably homogeneous genetic makeup, should minimize the importance of race, culture, or language differences. Anthropology is the discipline that studies the origins of humans. Anthropologists also study living human cultures, and there is a two-way transfer of information between cultural anthropologists and physical anthropologists. Knowledge of human descent deepens understanding of the diversity of cultures and capabilities among living humans. Studies of contemporary and recent cultures give great insight into how Stone Age ancestors might have lived and worked. Even the study of developmental psychology provides insights into the ways the modern mind might have evolved.
During the 1950's and 1960's, researchers in instinctive behavior studied a number of animals and insects. Scientists began to understand that instincts are not a simple response to the environment but are a complex sequence of behavior. Scientists also began to find evidence suggesting that natural selection acts on behavior patterns as well as on an organism's biological makeup. The result of this research came to be categorized into three broad groups of instinctive behavior. One was the response of a simple instinct on the part of a single organ to some stimulus. An example is a nerve cell responding to light that triggers a reflex response. Other reflex reactions include locomotion and movement. Another type of stereotyped behavior was called fixed action patterns (FAPs). For example, the courting behavior of ducks can be classified as FAPs, wherein the pattern and timing of the responses are invariable for all members of the
Within an individual, the development of cancer results from a combination of factors, including circumstances of infection, the individual's genetic makeup, H. pylori strain type, and other cofactors. Only some of these risk factors are amenable to intervention within a population. H. pylori-related gastric cancer could be prevented by preventing H. pylori infection (through either the interruption of H. pylori transmission or the immunization of susceptible people) by curing H. pylori infection (with the treatment of infected people via antibiotic therapy or therapeutic vaccination) or by removing other factors necessary for gastric cancer development.
Ronmental chemicals, so human exposure is quite high (109). When rats are treated with certain phthalates during the last week of pregnancy, which encompasses the period of sexual differentiation of the fetuses, the male offspring show a high incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias at birth and have reduced testis size in adulthood, which result in reduced sperm production (104,110,111). Although the cascade of events that leads to these disorders is not fully established, one important change is suppression of testosterone production by the fetal testis (104,111). Indeed, the spectrum of changes in male offspring that is induced by phthalate treatment in pregnancy is remarkably similar to testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans (see Fig. 3) and may provide a model system through which to study this hypothesized human syndrome (104). Whether human exposure to phthalates causes this syndrome remains to be explored. The doses of phthalates used to induce a high prevalence of male...
We may add a G to PNEI, as genetic makeup has been strongly hypothesised to play a pivotal role on some occasions in IBD patients, e.g. in determining, together with cytokine production from colonic T cells, the onset of primary sclerosing cholangitis in some patients with ulcerative colitis 39 . Moreover, gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation involves numerous genes, some of which directly modulate the expression pattern of inflammatory cells 40 . It is now well established that clinical manifestation of IBD is determined by a multigenic background low-power immunogenic agents can be hyperactivated by the presence of sterile mycobacterial fragments, thus allowing sufficient immune response. A disorder of this mechanism may be an important aetio-logical factor in IBD 41 . There are strict connections among intestinal flora, genetic makeup and the immune system the integrity of our self is guaranteed by the mucosal immune system, and entero-cytes transport to the lumen immunoglobulin...
Clearly HS occurs as a consequence of a cascade of events in individuals of differing genetic makeup. The susceptibility to an initiating event such as febrile seizures will vary in the population. A single seizure in someone who has had a prolonged febrile convulsion may have different consequences from a seizure in an individual who has not had this (priming). Increasing evidence suggests that the damage threshold for each individual may be different. MR has given us the opportunity to understand many of these factors in each of our patients. Contributions from genetic assessment will no doubt add more of the missing pieces (349).
(e) Personalized medicine means taking into account genetic and proteomic information for a given patient in medical decision making. Ongoing efforts in pharmacogenomics to tailor medication to the genetic makeup of an individual are in the exploratory phase. Corresponding advances are underway based on proteomic information for an individual gathered by mass spectrometry. Optimal treatment may be decided in light of the level of a given biomarker for a particular patient. This approach is not yet in place, but it is expected to become a reality in the medium term. Therapeutic drug monitoring is an early version of this concept (see Chapter 13). It is already used at various medical centers, but currently it is far from being widespread. Here the idea is to determine and control optimum drug dosage for a given patient, based on the measurement of drug concentrations, e.g., in the blood or urine. These approaches are likely to become more and more common and complex in the near future.
The actual genetic makeup of an individual is the genotype. The physical and functional makeup of an individual is the phenotype, determined both by the genotype and the environment. If two twins in a set are different, they are called fraternal twins. If two twins in a set resemble each other very closely, they are called identical twins and have the same genetic makeup. (para 14-7)
As early as 1949, Spoehr and Milner (8) suggested that mass culture of microalgae would help to overcome the global protein shortages. The basis for their optimism was that algae had crude protein content in excess of 50 , and biomass productivity of the order of 25 tons ha yr. Moreover, N- and P-rich wastewaters are also viewed as a valuable substrate for cultivation of algae (9). The cultivation of algae in wastewaters offers the combined advantages of treating the wastewaters and simultaneously producing algal biomass, which can further be exploited for protein complements and food additives (for aquaculture, animal and human feed), energies such as biogas and fuels, agriculture (fertilizers and soil conditioners), pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and other valuable chemicals (10).
Entering pigment data as a matrix is more flexible for adjusting the tax-onomic makeup and more suited to handling shared markers than building sets of equations. It readily accommodates hypothesis testing whereby several different models of a field population can be compared. The study by Havskum et al. 100 provides an excellent approach to using CHEMTAX on field samples.
A number of specialized clinical allergy tools have also been developed. One example is the allergen avoidance database tool which, when queried, produces an extensive list of skin care products that do not contain known allergens specific for a given patient (Yiannias & el-Azhary 2000). Another program predicts sensitization to flour allergens in bakers using a stepwise logic regression method (Popp et al 1994). We anticipate that more sophisticated bioinformatics tools will appear in the future to support research, clinical practice and the screening of novel synthetic or genetically manipulated (GM) foods and products. Novel GM foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetics and other products need to be carefully assessed for allergenic safety before they reach consumers. Immunoinformatics currently provides the only cost-effective and efficient means of performing such safety screening, hence its importance to the future of market acceptance of GM products.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is first and foremost a public health and consumer protection agency. It regulates products worth over 1 trillion, accounting for one-fourth of all dollars spent annually by American consumers 1 . The agency is responsible, through enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ('the Act') and several related public health laws, for ensuring that (a) foods are safe, wholesome, sanitary, and properly labeled human and veterinary drugs are safe and effective there is reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of devices intended for human use cosmetics are safe and properly labeled and public health and safety are protected from electronic product radiation (b) regulated products are honestly, accurately, and informatively represented and (c) these products are in compliance with the law and FDA regulations non-compliance is identified and corrected and any unsafe or unlawful products are removed from the marketplace 2 .
Hairy areas of the body, particularly the beard, scalp, back, legs, and arms, are common site of involvement. The patient may live in a warm, damp climate. Persons with diabetes are particularly susceptible to folliculitis. Other predisposing conditions include hot and humid weather, improper hygiene, tight clothing, occlusion caused by oil-based cosmetics or sunscreen products, and occupational exposure to irritating substances such as cooking oils, greases, or solvents.
Except in cystic fibrosis, P. aeruginosa is mainly a hospital problem. Since this ubiquitous organism can proliferate under the sparest of conditions in a moist milieu, a number of sources of infection are possible sinks, toilets, cosmetics, vaporizers, inhalers, respirators, anesthesiology equipment, dialysis equipment, etc. Infected patients and staff carrying the organism are also potential primary sources of infection. Neutropenic patients are particularly susceptible. Preventive measures i.e., above all disinfection and clinical hygiene, concentrate on avoiding exposure.
Before we discuss any type of data summary and statistical analysis, it is important to recognize that the value of any statistical analysis is only as good as the data collected. Because we are using data or samples to draw conclusions about entire populations or processes, it is critical that the data collected (or samples collected) are representative of the larger, underlying population. In other words, if we are trying to determine whether men between the ages of 20 and 50 years respond positively to a drug that reduces cholesterol level, we need to carefully select the population of subjects for whom we administer the drug and take measurements. In other words, we have to have enough samples to represent the variability of the underlying population. There is a great deal of variety in the weight, height, genetic makeup, diet, exercise habits, and drug use in all men ages 20 to 50 years who may also have high cholesterol. If we are to test the effectiveness of a new drug in...
Hubbard (1988) pointed out that those who have been permitted to make scientific facts are typically highly educated Western European and American white men of the upper-middle and upper classes. Although some white women and a few people of color have gained access to academe, by and large the socioeconomic class makeup of the scientific community remains one of privilege. Hubbard noted that science is not only conducted by the elite, but it is also defined by the elite. The rules of what constitutes science are made by those with privilege and power, and those rules are highly resistant to change. When women, people of color, and others who have been marginalized point out the emperor's nakedness, it is a small matter for the emperor and those who serve him to discount his detractors as emotional, crazy, or nonobjective (thus using the rules to reinforce the rules).
Recirculating unidirectional isolators are often fitted to pharmaceutical filling lines, and so they form an increasingly important group. Whilst the flow diagram of such systems appears complex, the control problems are perhaps not as intractable. The flow rate, which will probably be governed by the requirement to have a velocity off the inlet HEPA filters of 0.45 m sec, can be controlled by the main circulation fan or fans. The pressure in the isolator chamber may then be handled by controlling the input and output of makeup air. The makeup air may have a single- or double-fan arrangement that may be governed manually, but is more likely to be under the command of a PLC or PC. The single-fan design is probably an easier prospect since it will be dynamically more stable.
This section describes the chemical makeup of the principal constituents of a cell (i) nucleic acids in the form of DNA and RNA, (ii) proteins, (iii) saccharides (sugar derivatives), and (iv) lipids. (Albert et al., 1994 Stryer, 1995). The polymerization of the nucleotides to form nucleic acids occurs in a directed order. The convention is that the synthesis occurs from 5' to 3'. In this manner, the phosphate group located on the 5' carbon is added to the hydroxyl group on the 3' carbon of the growing chain. And, by convention, the polynucleotide sequences are also read 5' to 3'. For example, AUG represents 5'-AUG-3'. The sequence of nucleotides in the DNA defines the genetic makeup of the organism. All nucleotides involve a phosphate group linked by a phosphoester bond to a five-membered sugar molecule, pentose, which in turn is bonded to an organic base. As an example, the adenosine 5'-monophosphate nucleotide consists of the base adenine (A) as shown in Figure 3.6.
The Hardy-Weinberg theorem is the principal that, in the absence of external pressures for change, the genetic makeup of an ideal population of randomly mating, sexually reproducing diploid organisms will remain the same, at what is called Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Population genetics began as an attempt to extend Gregor Mendel's laws of inheritance to populations. In 1908 Godfrey H. Hardy, an English mathematician, and Wilhelm Weinberg, a German physician, each independently derived a description of the behavior of allele and genotype frequencies in an ideal population of randomly mating, sexually reproducing diploid organisms. Their results, now termed the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, showed that the pattern of allele and genotype frequencies in such a population followed simple rules. They also showed that, in the absence of external pressures for change, the genetic makeup of a population will remain at an equilibrium.
The concept of reproductive strategies is closely related to that of natural selection. Natural selection results in the more fit individuals within a population, under a given set of environmental circumstances, being more likely to pass on their genes to future generations. By this process, the gene pool (genetic makeup) of the population is altered over time. An organism's fitness can be assessed by evaluating two key characteristics survival and reproductive success. The organism's reproductive strategy, then, is that blend of traits enabling it to have the highest overall reproductive success. Application of the term reproductive strategy has also been extended to describe patterns beyond individual organisms the population, species even entire groups of similar species, such as carnivorous mammals.
The decline in cardiovascular mortality, including the steep rise and fall in CHD mortality, indicates that the major cause of mortality is controllable. Whether attributable more to beneficial changes in disease-promoting lifestyle or to better medical care of those already afflicted, it is clear that cardiovascular disease in most patients is not an inevitable burden of aging or genetic makeup. Although the causes of the decline in cardiovascular mortality are uncertain, the decline has been substantial, sustained, and real. The decline has coincided with increased efforts to achieve healthier living habits and with improvements in the ambient burden of cardiovascular risk factors.
Modern molecular genetic techniques are applied to the study of individual species of plants and animals and their restoration. Tissue, often a blood sample, taken from a single individual is analyzed to determine the genetic relations among members of a population. Scientists may then assess the potential of the remaining individuals to act as the beginning or nucleus for a new population. Modern techniques can determine the genetic makeup of animals and whether the individuals are distantly enough related to form a breeding pair without suffering the adverse consequences of inbreeding.
Another postmarket surveillance tool available to CDRH is Section 522 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act, which allows the FDA to require manufacturers to perform specified postmarket surveillance studies for Class II or III products 3 . This is utilized for devices where failure would likely cause serious health consequences, where it is intended to be implanted for more than 1 year, or if it is a life-sustaining device used outside the user facility. Such studies are usually focused on only one or two aspects of performance, rather than the overall long-term risks and benefits associated with the device. Another significant limitation of this tool is the duration of the study, which is limited to 3 years. This time limitation may be too short for some safety or effectiveness
With long-term administration, the female patient may experience mild to moderate masculine changes (virilization), namely facial hair, a deepening of the voice, and enlargement of the clitoris. Male pattern baldness, patchy hair loss, skin pigmentation, and acne may also be seen. Although these adverse effects are not life threatening, they often are distressing and only add to the patient's discomfort and anxiety. These problems may be easy to identify, but they are not always easy to solve. If hair loss occurs, the nurse can suggest the wearing of a wig. The nurse advises the patient that mild skin pigmentation may be covered with makeup, but severe and widespread pigmented areas and acne are often difficult to conceal. Each patient is different, and the emotional responses to these outward changes may range from severe depression to a positive attitude and acceptance. The nurse works with the patient as an individual, first identifying the problems, and then helping the patient,...
In addition to culture identification techniques, antibody reagents are available to detect O and H antigens of gram-negative enteric bacilli (usually Salmonella and Shigella species and Escherichia coli). The antibodies are used in a simple bacterial agglutination test in which an unknown organism isolated in culture is mixed with the antibody reagent (antiserum). If the antibodies are specific for the organism's antigenic makeup, agglutination (clumping) of the bacteria occurs. If the antiserum does not contain specific antibodies, no clumping is seen. A control test in which saline is substituted for the antiserum must always be included to be certain that the organism does not clump in the absence of the antibodies.
These lasers use a light to selectively heat up the collagen in the dermis to stimulate collagen remodeling. The superficial part of the skin is spared therefore, there is no injury to the outer layers of skin. This means that there will be no break in the surface of the skin and you can apply makeup immediately after laser treatment. There is little or no downtime associated with this laser treatment. Because there is no improvement in the superficial part of the skin, patients often do microdermabrasion in conjunction with laser treatment to help smooth out some of the fine lines and pigmentary changes that can be seen. Microdermabrasion also helps by removing outer most layers of skin, which allows better penetration of any topical treatment that you are using.
Animals differ widely in their specific nutritional needs, depending on the species. Within any given species, those needs may vary according to variations in body size and composition, age, sex, activity, genetic makeup, and reproductive functions. A small animal requires more food for energy per gram of body weight than does a larger animal, because the metabolic rate per unit of body weight is higher in the smaller animal. Likewise, an animal with a cool body temperature will have less energy needs and require less food than an animal with a high body temperature. An egg-producing or pregnant female will require more nutrients than a male. In order for an animal to be in a balanced nutritional state, it must consume food that will supply enough energy to supply power to all body processes, sufficient protein and amino acids to maintain a positive nitrogen balance and avoid a net loss of body protein, enough water and minerals to compensate for losses or incorporation, and those...
Although several books and journals exist that cover selective aspects of biophotonics, there is a clear need for a monograph that provides a unified synthesis of this subject. The need for such a book as this became apparent while teaching this topic as an interdisciplinary course available to students in many departments at the University at Buffalo. While offering tutorial courses at several professional society conferences such as BIOS of SPIE, the need became even more apparent. The makeup of the registrants for these tutorial courses has been multidisciplinary. Over the years, participants in these courses have constantly emphasized the need for a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary text in this field. Chapter 3 focuses on building a molecular understanding of biological structures and their relation to biological functions. It provides the basics of biology and introduces the necessary terminology and concepts of biology used in this book. The chapter is written primarily for...
Many schemes have been used for the integration of nanoscale LC columns with ESI-MS. Before it was widely known that ESI is stable at low flow rates, early coupling efforts used coaxial sheath flow. In this arrangement, column effluent is combined with a second makeup mobile phase, with the total flow rate into a range (0.1 to 1 mL min) accommodated by commercial hardware 40,41 . Once it was established that flow rate could be reduced without a concurrent loss in S N 42 , researchers began to directly couple nanoscale columns to a variety of sharpened (pulled, ground, or etched) narrow-bore ESI emitters 43-45 . High-voltage contact for ESI is typically established between the column and tip using a junction contact with a metal fitting or sleeve 43 , or directly at the end of the flow stream using an emitter coated with an electrical conductor 45 . Much attention has been paid to different thin-film formulations for use in either LC or CE-MS, and include noble-metal films 46 ,...
Similarly, make-up artists do not know about the Muller-Lyer illusion of two lines of equal length with arrows pointing in different directions at either end. Nevertheless, they know how to give eyes the appearance of being closer together, by applying make-up to the inner corner or, conversely, increasing the distance between the eyes by applying makeup to the outer corner.
The focus of this chapter is on building a molecular understanding of biological structures and their relation to biological functions. A main focus of modern biology and the new frontiers of genomics, proteomics, and bioinfor-matics are derived from this understanding and from profiling of diseases at the molecular level (Chapters 10 and 11). Such an understanding can lead to new and effective drug treatments, which are customized for the patient and are based on molecular profiling using an individual's genetic makeup.
The cline exhibited by the common grass frog is one of the best known of all the examples of this phenomenon. It has the greatest range, occupies the widest array of habitats, and possesses the greatest amount of morphological variability of any frog species. This variability and adaptation are not haphazard. The species includes a number of temperature-adapted demes, varying from north to south. These adaptations involve the departmental processes from egg to larva. The northernmost demes have larger eggs that develop faster at lower temperatures than those of the southernmost demes. These physiological differences are so marked that matings between individuals from the extreme ends of the cline result in abnormal larvae or offspring that are inviable (cannot survive) even at a temperature that is average for the cline region. Leopard frogs from Vermont can interbreed readily with ones from New Jersey. Those in New Jersey can hybridize readily with those in the Carolinas, and those...
As observed in Chapter 13, the Hardy-Weinberg law states that genes tend to remain at a constant frequency from generation to generation. However, by chance alone, genetic drift (a change in the genetic makeup of a population due to random events) may take place as a given gene fluctuates from its statistical average in any generation due to the
Has fourteen chromosomes in each somatic cell. Seven of those chromosomes are contributed from the mother plant and seven from the father plant, to make a total of fourteen chromosomes in the offspring. Therefore, half of the genes from all organisms come from each parent to determine the progeny's genetic makeup.
The genetic makeup of an organism dictates specific unlearned patterns of responses and variations that, in turn, determine a favorable selection of individuals within a species. Clearly, instincts in sexual selection, reproduction, food gathering, and other basic needs are critical for the survival of members of a species. In higher animals, instinctive activities are often overshadowed (and sometimes disguised) by learned patterns of responses. For example, in dogs, the pulling back of facial muscles and the showing of teeth is a response to fear and attack. In humans, laughter is a similar response to surprise, embarrassment, and uneasiness. Because of social adaptation, however, laughter takes on additional behavioral conventions.
The authors clearly identified a set of data from Chou and Elrod (1999) where each of the 2139 proteins was assigned an unambiguous class from this set (1) chloroplast, (2) cytoplasm, (3) cytoskeleton, (4) endoplasmic reticulum, (5) extracellular, (6) Golgi apparatus, (7) lysosome, (8) mitochondria, (9) nucleus, (10) peroxisome, (11) plasma membrane and (12) vacuole. The proteins themselves were represented by 20 variables which each represented an amino acid in the makeup of the protein. A Kohonen network was trained on the dataset and then tested by inputting the test data and observing which nodes in the feature map was most highly activated by the test example. Each study was performed with a self-consistency test (effectively executing the network on the data on which it was trained), and more significantly, a leave-one-out cross-validation approach was also used. Using this method the network achieved an accuracy of almost 80 per cent on the leave-one-out cross-validation tests....
The above example indicates that given a good problem definition, a neural network approach can be developed to solve a difficult problem in bioinformatics. The network clearly grasped the relationship between the amino acid make-up of the protein and its location in the cell. This is significant because if location can be determined from amino acid makeup, then an educated guess at function can then be made. Whilst the results were not optimal when the current best algorithms are considered, it must be remembered that the Kohonen approach is unsupervised and therefore must make the class decisions itself rather than being taught them explicitly. Finally, this research illustrates good use of the cross-validation procedure (which in this case is of the leave-one-out variety), as the results on independent test sets were very close to those predicted in cross-validation.
The disadvantage of ablative resurfacing is the significant downtime required during the recovery period. During the first week, erythema and edema are significant, wound care is necessary, and social activities come to a halt. Postoperative edema decreases after the first 3-4 days, whereas the erythema is prominent for the first week until re-epithelialization occurs and slowly diminishes over the next few weeks. The risk of infection, pigmentary changes and scarring is higher in the immediate postoperative period, as it is in any procedure where de-epithelialization occurs. Makeup is necessary for several weeks to months until any residual erythema and postinflamma-tory hyperpigmentation diminishes. Contact dermatitis may be more easily triggered in the postlaser disrupted epidermis, leading to pruri-tis and erythema. Acne, activated by the occlusive effect of the petrolatum or other dressings, is more common in the treated area and may take several weeks to clear. Relative...
The couple has heard that Down syndrome results from a rare chance mistake in egg production and therefore decide that they stand only a low chance of having such a child. They decide to have children. Their first child is unaffected, but the next conception aborts spontaneously (a miscarriage), and their second child is born with Down syndrome. Was this a coincidence, or is it possible that there is a connection between the genetic makeup of the man and that of his grandmother that led to their both having Down syndrome children Was the spontaneous abortion significant What tests might be necessary to investigate this situation The analysis of such questions is the topic of this chapter.
Plastic surgery suites vary considerably, depending on the focus of the practice (cosmetic or reconstructive) and whether there is an intention to provide skin care or spa services (a recent trend). Skin care spa services may include microdermabrasion skin resurfacing, chemical peels, permanent hair removal by a diode laser, facials, body and cellulite treatments, as well as makeup tattooing of eyeliner or brows. These procedures are explained in greater detail, and room requirements discussed, in the Dermatology section of this chapter and at the end of this section.
Charles Darwin, an English naturalist, published The Origin of Species in 1859. This work was the initial statement of his theory of evolution. Darwin's primary considerations were variability, in which changes in the genetic makeup of an organism lead to adaptation to the environment adaptation, or the ability to adjust and survive within the environment and selection, the tendency for adaptive characteristics to persist and for other characteristics to disappear.
Herbs and spices have been used for thousands of years to add zest to meals, to help preserve food, and even to cover up the taste and smell of spoiled food. The Sumerians were known to have used laurel (Laurus nobilis), caraway (Carum carvi), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) more than five thousand years ago. Other early records suggest that onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) were also used. At least as early as 1000 b.c.e., the Egyptians used garlic and mint (Mentha) along with many other plants, for medicine, in religious ceremonies, or in embalming. The Greeks and Romans greatly expanded the uses of herbs to include their use as symbols, magical charms, cosmetics, dyes, perfumes, and air purifiers.
Genetic variation or diversity the total number and distribution of alleles and genotypes in a population genotype the complete genetic makeup of an organism, regardless of whether these genes are expressed heterozygote a diploid organism that has two different alleles for a particular trait homozygote a diploid organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait inbreeding mating between relatives, an extreme form of positive assortative mating
The genotype is the actual genetic makeup of an individual. The phenotype is the physical and functional makeup of an individual as determined both by the genotype and the environment. (2) If they closely resemble each other, they are called identical twins. Identical twins are believed to originate in a common zygote, which separates into two entities at a very early stage. Thus, identical twins have the same genetic makeup. However, one is often right-oriented and the other left-oriented.
The lipid and protein makeup of membranes provides them with several important properties. Due to the hydrophobic nature of the membrane interior, water, some gases, and a few small, non-charged molecules are the only compounds that can cross freely. All other molecules need the help of a transport protein. Membranes have a high electrical resistance and therefore are capable of maintaining a difference in voltage (called a membrane potential) from one surface to the other. Membrane potentials are used to drive the transport of charged ions and are also involved in sensing of the environment. In addition, membranes have a low surface tension (that is, they are very wettable ) and a net negative surface charge, so they are capable of binding a variety of water-soluble minerals, ions, and proteins (such as the peripheral proteins).
Hybridization is the process of crossing two genetically different individuals to create new genotypes. For example, a cross between a parent 1, with the genetic makeup (genotype) BB, and parent 2, with bb, produces progeny with the genetic makeup Bb, which is a hybrid (the first filial generation or F1). Hybridization was the basis of Gregor Mendel's historic experiments with garden peas. Inheritance studies require crossing plants with contrasting or complementary traits.
Genetic variation in the color of corn kernels. Each kernel represents a separate individual with a distinct genetic makeup. The photograph symbolizes the history of humanity's interest in heredity. Humans were breeding corn thousands of years before the advent of the modern discipline of genetics. Extending this heritage, corn today is one of the main research organisms in classical and molecular genetics. William Sheridan, University of North Dakota photograph by Travis Amos. Genetic variation in the color of corn kernels. Each kernel represents a separate individual with a distinct genetic makeup. The photograph symbolizes the history of humanity's interest in heredity. Humans were breeding corn thousands of years before the advent of the modern discipline of genetics. Extending this heritage, corn today is one of the main research organisms in classical and molecular genetics. William Sheridan, University of North Dakota photograph by Travis Amos.
The superficial muscles and tendons about the hip can be evaluated with so-nography. Normal tendons demonstrate a hyperechoic fibrillar echo texture this is believed to be secondary to a highly organized collagenous makeup 10 . Partial tears are characterized by hypoechoic or anechoic focal defects involving either the surface or substance of the tendon (Fig. 2) however, partial tears can be difficult to differentiate from tendinopathy, because imaging findings may overlap. Complete tears demonstrate disruption of all fibers and retraction of the torn edges, which may be seen within a hypoechoic or anechoic hematoma. Sonography allows dynamic evaluation, which often
While the plasma membrane may inhibit movement of some substances, it can otherwise allow free movement and can even control movement of other substances into and out of the cell. As a result, the proportions and makeup of chemicals within a cell become quite different from those outside the cell. The plasma membrane is also involved in the production and assembly of cellulose for cell walls.
Reported on the results of his studies, which involved sensory integration, the makeup of the orientation reflex (which he credited Pavlov with introducing in 1910), a neuronal model and its role in the orientation reflex, and the way that this neuronal model could be used to explain the conditioned reflex. Sokolov measured changes in the diameter of blood vessels in the head and finger, changes in electrical waves within the brain, and changes in electrical conductivity of the skin. By lowering the intensity of a tone to which human subjects had been habituated, Sokolov demonstrated that habituation was not the result of fatigue, because subjects responded to the lower-intensity tone with the startle or orientation reflex just as they would when a new stimulus was introduced. Sokolov concluded that the orientation Habituation studies conducted in the laboratory enable researchers to control variables such as genetic makeup, previous experiences, diet, and the positioning of subject...
Genetics is the study of inheritance of characteristics from one generation to the next. Humans have been studying genetics since prehistoric times with the first selective breeding of wolves for companion animals. In the 1800's, an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, described the basic laws that govern the inheritance ofgenetic traits. In the twentieth century, the field of molecular genetics was created as biologists determined the actual chemical makeup of genes. genotype the actual genetic makeup of an organism
During the development of a medical device or material we are concerned with function, durability, and biocompatibility. In order to function, the implant must have appropriate physical properties such as mechanical strength, permeability or elasticity, just to name a few of these properties. Well-developed methods exist to measure these bulk properties -often these are the classic methodologies of engineers and materials scientists. Durability, particularly in a biological environment, is less well understood. Still, the tests we need to assess durability have been developed over the past 20 years. Biocompatibility represents a frontier of knowledge in this field, and its study is often assigned to the biochemist, biologist, and physician. However, an important question in biocompatibility is how the device or material communicates its structural makeup to direct or influence the response of proteins, cells, and the organism to it. For devices and materials that do not leach...
Because essentially every cell in the body of an organism has the same genetic makeup, it is crucial that the genetic material be faithfully replicated at every cell division. Thus the structural features of DNA must allow faithful replication. These structural features will be considered later in this chapter.
Aloes consists of the dried juice from the leaves of various Aloe species (Liliaceae Aloeaceae), including A. ferox (Cape aloes), A. barbadensis (Curacao aloes), and A. perryi (Socotrine aloes). The dark brown-black solid extract is extremely bitter, and contains 10-30 anthracene derivatives, the main component of which is barbaloin (Figure 3.33). Aloinosides A and B (Figure 3.33) are present in some varieties. Large amounts of resinous material form the bulk of the extract. Aloes is still used as a pharmaceutical aid in Compound Benzoin Tincture. The fresh mucilaginous gel obtained from Aloe species, particularly Aloe vera ( A. barbadensis), is held to assist wound healing, and is also widely used in skin cosmetics for its moisturizing and emollient properties. This material, mainly carbohydrate in nature (pectins and glucomannans), does not contain anthraquinone derivatives.
For example, a pond or forest natural selection a change in the genetic makeup of a population as a result of different survival and reproduction rates (fitness) among its members niche the role of an organism in its environment the sum of all factors that define its existence (temperature, energy requirements, and so on) population all the individuals in a habitat
Every species of organism examined by researchers has revealed immense genetic variation or polymorphism (many forms), an indication of the presence of different genotypes (genetic makeup) in the population. It is however, impossible to infer the genotypes of plants simply by observing their visible characteristics or phenotypes. In many plant science laboratories, researchers employ electrophoresis to determine the mode of reproduction of plant species, to detect genetic variation within and between plant populations, and to identify plant genotypes. Also, researchers establish genetic relatedness in plants, that is, establish the most probable paternal parent or pollen donor within and outside a study site that sired seeds collected from a known maternal plant. To accomplish these tasks, researchers rely upon protein and DNA markers generated by gel electrophoresis.
Homozygous recessive describes the organism's genotype, or its genetic makeup. It has two copies of the recessive allele of the gene. The observable characteristic of the organism, having white flowers, is called its phenotype. Although Mendel described the gene as the factor that was responsible for a particular trait, nothing was known about the physical makeup of a gene. One of the first questions scientists needed to answer was where genes are found in cells. Early studies in frogs and sea urchins indicated that the nucleus of the sperm and the nucleus of the egg combined with each other during fertilization. This observation suggested that the genetic material that determined how the fertilized egg would develop might reside in the nucleus.
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